Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3: Carbon Compounds in Cells. I. Organic Chemistry A. What is organic? 1.Made by Living Things (organisms)…but then Stanley Miller’s experiment."— Presentation transcript:
I. Organic Chemistry A. What is organic? 1.Made by Living Things (organisms)…but then Stanley Miller’s experiment. 2. Contains Carbon…but not CO 2 3. So, contains Carbon Covalently Bound to Hydrogen and Oxygen.
I. Organic Chemistry B. Carbon’s Characteristics: 1. Plentiful and Stable. 2. Forms 4 bonds (4 valence e-). 3. Will form chains and rings with other carbon atoms.
I. Organic Chemistry C. Functional Groups: The group that often determines how a molecule will interact with another molecule.
I. Organic Chemistry C. Functional Groups Know these four functional groups: -OH Hydroxyl (hydrogen bonding) -COOH Carboxyl -NH 3 Amino -PO 4 Phosphate
I. Organic Chemistry D. Types of Reactions 1. Condensation, or Dehydration Synthesis: Two smaller molecules join to form one macromolecule and release a molecule of water.
I. Organic Chemistry D. Types of Reactions 2. Hydrolysis, or Cleavage Reaction: A macromolecule is cleaved/split, requiring a molecule of water. The result is two smaller molecules.
II. Carbohydrates So named as some have a ratio of 1 carbon to 1 water (thus, hydrated carbon or carbohydrate). Glucose = 6 carbon to 6 waters Sucrose =C 12 H 22 O 11 What is missing? Where did it go?
II. Carbohydrates A.Monomers (basic building blocks) Sugars: Monosaccharids, Disaccharides or Oligosaccharids. 1. Monosaccharides: Glucose (main energy for most living things), Fructose (common sugar in fruits) and galactose.
II. Carbohydrates B. Polymers (made of many units) are Polysaccharides: Starch, Cellulose, Fiber and Glycogen; also called Complex Carbohydrates. Starch- Many glucose molecules covalently bonded together. Principal storage molecule for plants.
II. Carbohydrates Glycogen – Similar to starch in that it is many glucose molecules covalently bonded together, but the molecule has different side chains. This molecule is a principle energy storage molecule for animals.
II. Carbohydrates Cellulose – A long strand of glucose molecules, bound together in such a way that most animals are unable to digest this molecule. It is a structural molecule and gives plants their strength. Can be digested by cows due to the presence of bacteria in their stomachs.
MMs and Crickets Chitin – Similar to cellulose, but nitrogen is added to each glucose unit. This is the primary molecule in the exoskeleton of insects and cell wall of fungi.
III. Lipids A.Fats/Oils/ Waxes/Grease 1. Monomers: Fatty acids and Glycerols Fatty Acid Chain of Carbon: Hydrogen atoms (few to no oxygen atoms)
III. Lipids B. Polymer: Triglycerids 1. Saturated Fats (maximum # of hydrogens); all single bonds; usually solid at room temperature. 2. Unsaturated Fats; one or more double bonds; usually liquid at room temperature.
Fig. 3.9a, p. 40 stearic acidoleic acidlinolenic acid Which is mono-unsaturated? Poly-unsaturated? Saturated?
III. Lipids C. Polymer: Phospholipids. A polar phosphate head and a nonpolar fatty acid tail.
III. Lipids D. Polymer: Sterols. Fats without fatty acid chains (include steroids, cholestorol).
IV. Proteins A.Monomer: Amino Acids 1. 20 Naturally occurring AAs; 8 we must get through our diet. 2. Contain nitrogen (amino group), carboxyl group and R group.
IV. Proteins B. Polymer: Proteins, or Polypeptide Chain Two amino acids combine with peptide bonds.
Fig. 3.15, p. 43 newly forming polypeptide chain
IV. Proteins C. Protein Structure: a. Primary and Secondary, formed by AA sequence b. Tertiary, due to interactions of functional groups. c. Quarternary, due to interaction of two or more separate proteins.
IV. Proteins D. Denatured: Proteins can lose their shape if exposed to excess heat, pH or other conditions. V. ATP and Nucleic Acids Skip this reading, just know that ATP is an important energy store in cells.