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The Constitutional Convention Copy the following notes.

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1 The Constitutional Convention Copy the following notes.

2 The Constitutional Convention begins 1787 - Philadelphia 1787 - Philadelphia Delegates from all the states invited to a convention to improve the Articles of Confederation, which were not working Delegates from all the states invited to a convention to improve the Articles of Confederation, which were not working Only RI didn’t attend Only RI didn’t attend 55 Delegates attended 55 Delegates attended

3 What Influenced the Framers? English Parliamentary Traditions English Parliamentary Traditions The Magna Carta (1215) The Magna Carta (1215) The English Bill of Rights (1689) The English Bill of Rights (1689) Enlightenment Thinkers Enlightenment Thinkers John Locke John Locke Natural Rights Natural Rights Baron de Montesquieu Baron de Montesquieu Separation of Powers Separation of Powers

4 Debates, Decisions and Compromises Each state would have one vote on all questions. Each state would have one vote on all questions. The delegates decided to keep all the sessions secret. This made it possible for the delegates to talk freely. The delegates decided to keep all the sessions secret. This made it possible for the delegates to talk freely.

5 Leaders of the Convention George Washington was asked to preside (lead) over the convention. James Madison kept notes of the discussions and is often called “The Father of the Constitution.” The men who wrote the Constitution are called the “Founding Fathers.” All the participants in the Convention were wealthy, white, males.

6 The Founding Fathers

7 Issues that divided the Nation’s leaders The power of the federal government. Would the states or the federal government have the most power? Representation in Congress (How many members on Congress would each state get? – small states wanted equal representation, large states wanted it to be determined by population of the states Slavery – How would slaves be counted? Would the slave trade continue?

8 Called for a new national government. Threw out the Articles of Confederation Three separate branches of government. – a legislative branch, executive branch, and judicial branch Representation in the legislative branch based on population of state Large states like the plan, small states don’t. The Virginia Plan

9 New Jersey Plan Legislature - has one house. Each state gets one vote. Small states like the plan, the large states hate it. There would have to be a compromise.

10 The Great Compromise aka the Connecticut Compromise Legislature would have two houses (parts): House of Representatives and a Senate House - based on the population of state Senate - two senators per each state

11 Slavery The Southern states refused to approve the Constitution unless slavery continued. The Southern states refused to approve the Constitution unless slavery continued. It was a terrible compromise to make, but the Northern states had no choice if they wanted a Constitution It was a terrible compromise to make, but the Northern states had no choice if they wanted a Constitution This lead to two major compromises dealing with slavery This lead to two major compromises dealing with slavery 3/5 Compromise 3/5 Compromise Commerce and Slave Trade Commerce and Slave Trade

12 Slavery 3/5ths Compromise The Question, Property of Person 3/5 Compromise - Made each slave worth 3/5 of a vote in deciding numbers in House of Representatives (making southern states happy) This also meant that each slave was worth 3/5 of a person in taxation (making northern states happy) Congress can not ban the slave trade until 1808.

13 Slavery Commerce and Slave Trade US Government can not tax any exported good US Government can not tax any exported good Congress could not ban the slave trade until 1808 Congress could not ban the slave trade until 1808 This settled two major fights that the southern states wanted and really needed to sustain their way of life, but also gave the Northern states what they wanted… A New Government This settled two major fights that the southern states wanted and really needed to sustain their way of life, but also gave the Northern states what they wanted… A New Government

14 Ratification 9 out of 13 states had to ratify (approve) the Constitution 9 out of 13 states had to ratify (approve) the Constitution 9 States had ratified the Constitution but New York and Virginia had yet to ratify meaning most states wanted to wait. 9 States had ratified the Constitution but New York and Virginia had yet to ratify meaning most states wanted to wait. Federalists-supporters of the Constitution Federalists-supporters of the Constitution James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay defended the Constitution in The Federalist Papers James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay defended the Constitution in The Federalist Papers Anti-Federalists-opposed ratification Anti-Federalists-opposed ratification Lacked a bill of rights to protect individual freedoms Lacked a bill of rights to protect individual freedoms

15 Adopting the Constitution June 21, 1788—New Hampshire (the 9 th state) ratified the Constitution June 21, 1788—New Hampshire (the 9 th state) ratified the Constitution June 25, 1788—Virginia ratified the Constitution June 25, 1788—Virginia ratified the Constitution June 26, 1788—New York ratified the Constitution June 26, 1788—New York ratified the Constitution November 1789— Constitution ratified by North Carolina November 1789— Constitution ratified by North Carolina May 1790—Constitution ratified by Rhode Island May 1790—Constitution ratified by Rhode Island


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