Introduction _________________ is the study of past ____________ through the material (physical) __________ people left behind.
What is a site? A "site" is a ________________ archaeologists wish to ___________________. At the _______, archaeologists literally _________, looking for the ___________ of ancient _____________________. That is why they call the site at which they are working a “____________”.
Remains can range from small _________, such as ___________, to large __________________, such as pyramids – anything __________ created or _____________is part of archaeological record.
The ____________ are used to ____________ all aspects of _____________ culture. Often, these objects are _________ and have to be carefully uncovered or _____________ before they can be studied.
Functions of Archaeology Helps us _____________ and _____________ our shared human __________. * Informs us about the ____________. * Helps us ____________ where we came from. * Shows us how people _________, overcame _____________, and developed the __________________ we have today.
Material Culture ________________ are smaller, more _______________ objects that help us understand the behavior and ____________ of groups of people. ______________ are remains that cannot be ______________, such as large ___________________
Depends on the type of materials (_____________, which deteriorate more quickly than inorganic) and the ________________c onditions to which they are __________ Preservation of Material Culture Mesa Verde, Colorado
* ____________ Archaeologists - deal with time ____________ before the invention of __________________ * ____________ Archaeologists - can examine both _______________ remains and _________ * ____________Archaeologists - study _______________ and __________ that date to the period after the ___________________ ___________________ Types of Archaeology
* ___________ Archaeology - civilizations affected by the ____________ and __________ * _________Archaeology - deals with ________ * ______________Archaeology - focuses on cultures in __________________________ and _________________. Archaeologists generally tend to focus on a particular ___________ that often is associated with a ______________ period:
_______________- study people living __________ and _____________ how they organize and use ______________ to help reveal how the people of the ______________lived. * _________________Archaeologists - help us understand the _____________________ that existed when the people being _____________ were ___________. Other types of Archaeologists
______________Archaeologists - reconstruct _________________ and ____________________ used in the past. ________________ Archaeologists – studies material _____________________that survive ___________________
Archaeology uses __________________ to guide its practices. Before beginning a project, an archaeologist needs a reason to dig, and _______________ plan, and permission from the _____________ of the place being excavated. The Process of Archaeology Akrotiri Thera, Santorini (Greece)
Permission to Dig An archaeologist must receive ______________ to explore a site. The _____________ of the land must grant permission. Sometimes the _____________________ of a country must issue ________________________. Once permission is received, archaeologists work in ___________with other archaeologists. A team begins to explore the area. They look for ______________ that people once lived in the area. Evidence includes ____________ and __________________
1._______________________ - excavations are conducted to answer specific questions or _____________ particular issues. Archaeologists do not dig __________________ in search of artifacts. * They think about what people need to stay ____________. Some of those things include access to clean ______________ water, a ___________ place to live, and easy access to _______________ routes. With this in mind, archaeologists look for remains of civilizations along the ________________________ and streams. Steps of an Archaeological Project
* They check out _____________ of artifacts that have been discovered. Artifacts have been discovered by ____________ and ______________ _______________ while working at their jobs. * They check the ___________ from the __________, looking for large ______________ that could be the __________ of an ancient living area. * They use scientific ____________________ like ____________ and _______________ to look for ruins.
2. ____________and site ____________- Once they have a reason to dig, archaeologists must ______________ where to dig. Once an __________________ site has been located, a detailed ______________ is created before digging begins. _____________- the most well known part of archaeology. Archaeologists excavate _______________ buried under the _____________. As sites grow, change, are ________________, and rise again over time, successive layers of ___________develop around artifacts. These layers are called _______________, and the recording and “reading” of the layers is called _____________________ (to write or record strata.)
3. ________________ – Before digging the site is ____________into ______________ (grids) using _________ & ______________ to keep track of all the features and artifacts. * Each ______________ in the _____________must be carefully searched. A ________________ must be kept of anything found, including what was found _____________________________. * A _____________ is a ______________ in which an archaeologist has chosen to dig or search for ______________
Setting up a unit * Your unit will be a “______________” Start with two sides that need to measure ______________. Using the _________________________, _______________, you will find the __________________ to be _________________, your measurement from corner to corner & across the _________________. Using this method you can be sure all ____________ of the unit will be __________________
Tools of the Trade The tools they use are sometimes very ________________. Tools include ________________, a shovel, _______________________, _____________ brushes, spoons, _____________________, nail file, sieves, ________, dustpans, a _____________, clippers, and ________________ They search each _____________very carefully. Digging at a site is ____________ and _______________ work.
First using ________________ and spades, you need to remove the ___________________, which reaches about _________below the surface. Keep your eyes peeled for ______________ such as ___________ that can be found in the plow zone! Removing the Plow Zone
Once the plow zone is __________________, you may find changes in the soil _______________. These are called _________________. Once a stain is found, you can be sure you have discovered a _________________ within the unit. There is a chance you will find ___________________ below this…
Working at a dig site… To begin _________________ your feature you will need to CAREFULLY remove the soil ____________ at a time. Each ____________ of soil is called a ______________.
The MATRIX!!! Before you begin ___________ away each 5 cm level, you need to take a _____________ or _______________ of soil. This is done using your _______________ to “___________” the soil out of the level.
The matrix is taken back to ______________ where it is _______________ and then _______________ through _______________ for items like small ___________ or flakes or _______________. This can help give more ________________ about the site and the ________________ who once occupied it. Any soil you ______________ from a ____________ is ________________. That way any _____________ too _______________ to be seen or mixed in with the soil you _________________ don’t get away!!!
Certain ________________ will need to be left “__________” as they may ______________ into the __________________. Some may need to be __________ in the __________ underneath it and then ________ it. Then you will need to use your handy __________________ to remove the dirt. Even though you may be tempted to just “yank that puppy out of there” – DON’T DO IT!!!!!!!!!! ________________ of an artifact needs to be done very ___________________!!!!!!
4. __________________and _________________ - Records – including _______________, _______________, and detailed _______________ - are made of all artifacts and their ______________________ before they are carefully removed for further analysis. ______________ objects that have been _______________ underground or ___________________ for years have to be cared for appropriately once they are exposed to _________. _________________ are specialists trained to _____________ and ___________________ delicate or _____________________ objects.
Finding artifacts After you remove an _______________, you need to put it into a correctly ________________ plastic _______. The artifacts will be taken back to _____________ to be ________________ and _____________________. 5. _______________________ - Once objects are labeled and removed from a site, they are taken to a ____________, ___________________, and placed into a ____________________. Archaeologists use this information to put together ______________________________.
* ______________________ - Once excavation is completed, the _________________ and artifacts have been ____________________ and _______________, and the archaeologist is responsible for ___________________ the findings and explaining the ______________ of the site and the __________________________ of the finds to the people of the past. 6. __________________- The ___________result of excavation is the _________________ of all the finds, plans, and _____________________ along with an __________________________ of the site.
Destruction of Cultural Heritage Unfortunately, ___________________ with the past does not always translate to _____________ scientific study. Often sites are _________________ by people interested solely in finding objects to _____________ or ____________ for profit Sometimes, sites can also be ____________________ by well-meaning ___________ who touch or take pieces of objects, ______________, or ______________________________. Most archaeologists are actively involved in the _________________ and ______________________ of cultural _________________. They try to ensure that there are adequate _______________ to protect and __________________ archaeological remains and devise plans to save sites that are being _____________________.