2 A Mutation is a change in genetic material There are 2 types of mutationsGene mutationsProduce a change in a single geneChromosomal mutationsProduce a change in a whole chromosome
3 Gene Mutations Point mutation Mutations involving one or only a few nucleotides.Includes when one base is changed to another,And when one base is inserted or removed from the DNA sequence.Equivalent to changing one letter in a sentenceoriginal The fat cat ate the wee ratmutation The fat hat ate the wee rat
4 Gene Mutations Frameshift mutation When one or more bases are added or removed. This causes the reading frame to change or shift.This can result in a meaningless and often shortened protein.Equivalent to adding or removing letters in a sentence.original The fat cat ate the wee ratmutation The fat caa tet hew eer at (t in cat deleted)
5 Chromosomal Mutations DeletionAffect the whole chromosomeCan be small, like the removal of one codon sequence, or larger like the removal of an entire gene on the chromosome.One example is the removal of a word.original The fat cat ate the wee ratmutation The fat ate the wee rat
6 Chromosomal Mutations DuplicationWhen one part of the chromosome gets copied and inserted back into the chromosome.An example is when a word is duplicated in a sentence.original The fat cat ate the wee ratmutation The fat cat cat ate the wee rat
7 Chromosomal Mutations InversionAn entire section of DNA is reversed.May involve only a few bases or several genesEquivalent to part of a sentence being flipped around or invertedoriginal The fat cat ate the wee ratmutation The fat tar eew eht eta tac
8 Chromosomal Mutations TranslocationWhen part of one chromosome swaps places with part of another chromosome.This would be the same as if two sentences broke apart and recombined with each other.original The fat cat ate the wee ratThe big dog ranmutation The fat cat ate dog ranThe big the wee rat
9 Mutations Most mutations have little or no effect on gene expression. Mutations that cause dramatic changes can be harmful and disrupt normal biological activities.
10 MutationsMutations may also produce proteins that have new or altered activities that can be useful.This is most often seen in plants and animals.Polyploid plants are often larger and stronger than diploid plants.
11 PolyploidyPolyploidy is the condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes.This happens when a complete set of chromosomes fails to separate during meiosis.Gametes produced may be triploid (3N) or tetraploid (4N).Some examples of polyploid plants are bananas and many citrus fruits.