2 End of the Constitutional Convention Ended Sept. 17, 1787 – only 39 men of 55 ultimately signed the ConstitutionUnder the Articles of Confederation, all 13 states had to agree,Under the Constitution, after 9 agreed, those agreeing states would adopt the ConstitutionConvention men going over the heads of Congress and states.
3 Ratification ProcessDefinition- official approval of a resolution by a body of peopleEach state hold special convention in order to vote on constitutionState delegates elected by peopleRatification of Constitution required the approval of 9 states.Purpose:1) Bypass state legislatures who would oppose it since Constitution reduced power of states2) Gave framers time to campaign for delegates in their states who would support ratification
5 Federalists Supporters of the constitution Insisted division of powers/system of checks and balances would protect US from the tyranny of centralized authority
6 Federalists Supporters of Constitution: Leading Supporters: urban centers (merchants, skilled workers, laborers)saw the benefit of a national gov. that could control tradesmall states and those with weak economiesbecause central gov. could protect their interestsLeading Supporters:George WashingtonJames Madison
7 Anti-Federaliststhose who opposed a strong central government, and were against a ConstitutionCountered with list of possible abuses of power of a strong central Gov.:Would serve the interests of the privileged minorityWould ignore rights of the majorityDoubted a single Gov. could manage the affairs of a large countryConstitution’s lack of protection for individual rightsFelt states lost a lot of power
8 Anti-Federalists Non-Supporters Leading Non-Supporters rural areas saw little benefit in a strong government that might add to their tax burden.Large states and those with strong economies (ie. NY/VA)because had greater freedom under the Articles of ConfederationLeading Non-SupportersPatrick Henry, Sam Adams, Richard Henry Lee
9 The Campaign in the Newspapers Both sides campaigned on subject of ConstitutionUsed newspapers to get their views across2 Leading Documents:The Federalist Papers and Letters from the Federal Farmer
10 Federalist Papers Pro- Constitution Writings 85 essays in NY newspapersPublished by signature “Publius”Written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John JayProvided an analysis and explanation of the Constitution#10 – Important to balance power of factions, need a representative government#51 - advocates that the separation of powers within the national government protects against a strong Central Gov.
11 Letters from the Federal Farmer Anti-Constitutionwritten by Richard Henry LeeInsisted rights of individuals needed to be protected
13 Reasons for Call for Bill of Rights Since Constitution weakened states, needed something in Central Gov. to protect Individual RightsDespite Federalist arguments, they yielded
14 Ratification First State to Ratify – Delaware – Dec. 1787 New Hampshire 9th state to ratify = constitution is passedNY,VA, NC, and RI had not yet votedNeeded NY and VA to legitimize the Constitution
15 Heated debate in VA, but support of GW, JM brought Federalist victory in June 1788 NY ratified on July 26, 1788Last state to accept Constitution = RI (5/29/90)Many states had waited for Federalists pledge to include Bill of Rights before ratifyingBill of Rights finally passed by Congress 9/25/89, ratified Dec. 15, 1791.