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The Ratification of the Constitution

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1 The Ratification of the Constitution

2 End of the Constitutional Convention
Ended Sept. 17, 1787 – only 39 men of 55 ultimately signed the Constitution Under the Articles of Confederation, all 13 states had to agree, Under the Constitution, after 9 agreed, those agreeing states would adopt the Constitution Convention men going over the heads of Congress and states.

3 Ratification Process Definition- official approval of a resolution by a body of people Each state hold special convention in order to vote on constitution State delegates elected by people Ratification of Constitution required the approval of 9 states. Purpose: 1) Bypass state legislatures who would oppose it since Constitution reduced power of states 2) Gave framers time to campaign for delegates in their states who would support ratification

4 Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

5 Federalists Supporters of the constitution
Insisted division of powers/system of checks and balances would protect US from the tyranny of centralized authority

6 Federalists Supporters of Constitution: Leading Supporters:
urban centers (merchants, skilled workers, laborers) saw the benefit of a national gov. that could control trade small states and those with weak economies because central gov. could protect their interests Leading Supporters: George Washington James Madison

7 Anti-Federalists those who opposed a strong central government, and were against a Constitution Countered with list of possible abuses of power of a strong central Gov.: Would serve the interests of the privileged minority Would ignore rights of the majority Doubted a single Gov. could manage the affairs of a large country Constitution’s lack of protection for individual rights Felt states lost a lot of power

8 Anti-Federalists Non-Supporters Leading Non-Supporters rural areas
saw little benefit in a strong government that might add to their tax burden. Large states and those with strong economies (ie. NY/VA) because had greater freedom under the Articles of Confederation Leading Non-Supporters Patrick Henry, Sam Adams, Richard Henry Lee

9 The Campaign in the Newspapers
Both sides campaigned on subject of Constitution Used newspapers to get their views across 2 Leading Documents: The Federalist Papers and Letters from the Federal Farmer

10 Federalist Papers Pro- Constitution Writings
85 essays in NY newspapers Published by signature “Publius” Written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay Provided an analysis and explanation of the Constitution #10 – Important to balance power of factions, need a representative government #51 - advocates that the separation of powers within the national government protects against a strong Central Gov.

11 Letters from the Federal Farmer
Anti-Constitution written by Richard Henry Lee Insisted rights of individuals needed to be protected

12 The Importance of the Bill of Rights

13 Reasons for Call for Bill of Rights
Since Constitution weakened states, needed something in Central Gov. to protect Individual Rights Despite Federalist arguments, they yielded

14 Ratification First State to Ratify – Delaware – Dec. 1787
New Hampshire 9th state to ratify = constitution is passed NY,VA, NC, and RI had not yet voted Needed NY and VA to legitimize the Constitution

15 Heated debate in VA, but support of GW, JM brought Federalist victory in June 1788
NY ratified on July 26, 1788 Last state to accept Constitution = RI (5/29/90) Many states had waited for Federalists pledge to include Bill of Rights before ratifying Bill of Rights finally passed by Congress 9/25/89, ratified Dec. 15, 1791.

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