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Roger Johnson & David Johnson Cooperative Learning.

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1 Roger Johnson & David Johnson Cooperative Learning

2 Johnson & Johnson are both co-directors of The Cooperative Learning Center at the University of Minnesota. “Cooperative Learning is a relationship in a group of students that requires positive interdependence (a sense of sink or swim together), individual accountability (each of us has to contribute and learn), interpersonal skills (communication, trust, leadership, decision making, and conflict resolution), face-to-face promotive interaction, and processing (reflecting on how well the team is functioning and how to function even better).”

3 Cooperative Learning P.I.G.S. Positive Interdependence Individual Accountability Group Processing Small Group Skills Essential components of success in C.L. Criteria used to produce long- term growth

4 Positive Interdependence Students work in structured groups where each member is tied to one another. Students collaborate within a structured small group towards a common goal. Each individual works with the mindset that they are needed to complete the group goal. Joint effort of skills will introduce students to a variety of viewpoints on the same issue and help produce the best possible answer.

5 Types of Positive Interdependence Goal, Identity, Task, Competition, Reward, Materials, Role, Environmental, Fantasy, Resource Students in small groups realize their responsibility to one another. Individual input benefits the collective group. Goal Oriented objectives are outlined. “If there is no P.I., there is no cooperation.”

6 Individual Accountability Although group accountability is typically seen as the way a teacher grades the final fruit of the group’s labor, accountability rests with each member’s contribution. When students are directed to complete a specific segment of a larger whole, the teacher can identify which students completed their segments correctly.

7 The purpose of checking up on an individual’s comprehension is to help that individual grow. Before allowing students to complete an assignment, inform them how you will be assessing their work. A teacher should NEVER ever..forever ever? Use the same form of assessment for a groups work. Different forms of assessment include the following: Random Questioning, Similar Assignment, Teacher Monitoring, Practice Quiz, Individual Reports, Teacher Interview

8 Group Processing/Small Group Skills Groups need to inquire of one another, how comfortable everyone is with the material being discussed. Students should make certain that each member is working effectively and completing their assigned area correctly. Working within a group provides a challenge for the cognitive mind; students must concentrate on the academic demands as well as communicating with each other. Cooperation and conflict are connected to one another and make the teachers responsible for laying the foundation of cooperative learning that more important.

9 Cooperative Learning Is/Involves… Individual accountability Teaches social skills Trust building Increases engaged learning Structured Specific roles/jobs Heads together Collaborative Encouragnig

10 Cooperative Learning Is Not… Competition based Judgmental The easy way out Unstructured One student doing all of the work Students copying from one another A replacement for teacher instruction Extra work for gifted students The only way a teacher should structure the learning process

11 Individualistic & Competitive Learning Success depends on the students’ personal performance on established content. One student or group wins, and the others lose.

12 Research Suggests… Students achieve more in cooperative groups than individualistically or competitively. Students have a better attitude about school. Students are most positive about each other even if the students are in a diverse group. Allows students to take the perspective of others, engages students in taking part in controversy, and develop positive interaction skills. (Cooperative Learning: Two heads are better than one.)

13 The Future Of C.L. Make the move from competitive to cooperative Cooperative classrooms to cooperative schools and systems Focus on “peacemakers” Roger Johnson, David Johnson, and Edythe Hollubec are key consultants of Cooperative Learning


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