Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 3: The Rise of Segregation I can discuss how African Americans in the South were disfranchised and how segregation was legalized. I can describe three major African American leaders’ responses to discrimination.
(pages 508–509) Resistance and Repression Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. After Reconstruction, most African Americans were sharecroppers, or landless farmers who had to give the landlord a large share of their crops to cover their costs for rent and farming supplies. In 1879 Benjamin “Pap” Singleton organized a mass migration of African Americans, called Exodusters, from the rural South to Kansas.
Some African Americans that stayed in the South formed the Colored Farmers’ National Alliance. The organization worked to help its members set up cooperatives. Many African Americans joined the Populist Party. Threatened by the power of the Populist Party, Democratic leaders began using racism to try to win back the poor white vote in the South. Resistance and Repression (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 508–509)
By 1890 election officials in the South began using methods to make it difficult for African Americans to vote. Resistance and Repression (cont.) (pages 508–509)
(page 510) Disfranchising African Americans Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Southern states used loopholes in the Fifteenth Amendment and began to impose restrictions that barred almost all African Americans from voting. In 1890 Mississippi required all citizens registering to vote to pay a poll tax, which most African Americans could not afford to pay.
The state also required all prospective voters to take a literacy test. Most African Americans had no education and failed the test. Other Southern states adopted similar restrictions. The number of African Americans and poor whites registered to vote fell dramatically in the South. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 510) Disfranchising African Americans (cont.)
To allow poor whites to vote, some Southern states had a grandfather clause in their voting restrictions. (page 510) Disfranchising African Americans (cont.) This clause allowed any man to vote if he had an ancestor on the voting rolls in 1867. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
(pages 510–511) Legalizing Segregation Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In the late 1800s, both the North and the South discriminated against African Americans. In the South, segregation, or separation of the races, was enforced by laws known as Jim Crow laws. In 1883 the Supreme Court overturned the Civil Rights Act of 1875. The ruling meant that private organizations or businesses were free to practice segregation.
Southern states passed a series of laws that enforced segregation in almost all public places. The Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson endorsed “separate but equal” facilities for African Americans. This ruling established the legal basis for discrimination in the South for over 50 years. Legalizing Segregation (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 510–511)
In the late 1800s, mob violence increased in the United States, particularly in the South. Between 1890 and 1899, hundreds of lynchings– executions without proper court proceedings–took place. Most lynchings were in the South, and the victims were mostly African Americans. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Legalizing Segregation (cont.) (pages 510–511)
(pages 511–512) The African American Response Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1892 Ida B. Wells, an African American from Tennessee, began a crusade against lynching. She wrote newspaper articles and a book denouncing lynchings and mob violence against African Americans.
Booker T. Washington, an African American educator, urged fellow African Americans to concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than legal or political ones. He explained his views in a speech known as the Atlanta Compromise. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 511–512) The African American Response (cont.)
The Atlanta Compromise was challenged by W.E.B. Du Bois, the leader of African American activists born after the Civil War. (pages 511–512) The African American Response (cont.) Du Bois said that white Southerners continued to take away the civil rights of African Americans, even though they were making progress in education and vocational training. He believed that African Americans had to demand their rights, especially voting rights, to gain full equality. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
Thomas Nast was responsible for creating the symbols of both the Democratic and Republican parties. To this day, the donkey symbolizes Democrats, and the elephant symbolized Republicans.
The Interstate Commerce Commission no longer exists. It was terminated in 1995.
Economics To quiet demands for a larger money supply, the government passed the Bland-Allison Act of 1878. The act authorized the U.S. Treasury to purchase silver and issue silver certificates for the first time. Silver certificates could be exchanged for silver dollars. The Treasury continued to exchange silver certificates for silver dollars until 1964. Silver certificates remain a legal form of currency in the United States.
Government The Populist Party had an impact on politics and government far beyond its showing in national elections. Minor parties have often served as vehicles for reform by taking clear-cut stands on controversial issues and proposing bold and original solutions. Among the Populist proposals that were adopted and are still in place today are the federal income tax (Sixteenth Amendment, 1913), direct election of U.S. senators (Seventeenth Amendment, 1913), the secret ballot (late 1890s), and primary elections (Wisconsin, 1903).
Farmers in 37 states belong to the Grange today. The organization still pursues its original goals of providing educational and social support to farmers and their families.
After William Jennings Bryan delivered his speech at the Democratic convention in 1896, people were crying and rejoicing for an hour.
Rural Lingo Grange comes from the Middle Latin word granica, which is from the Latin granum, or “grain.” At one time the grange was the farm of a monastery, where grain was stored.
Bimetallists People who supported using both gold and silver as currency were known as bimetallists.