Immigrants Push Factors –Starvation –Poverty –No political freedom Pull Factors –Jobs –Freedom & equality –More land Irish immigrants were poor and settled in cities in the Northeast. –Left Ireland because of potato famine and economic & political oppression by Britain. Many German immigrants became farmers in the Midwest.
Cities Industrial & Transportation Revolutions led to the growth of cities. Cities offered more entertainment & cultural activities Problems: Crowded & dirty; more diseases Immigrants & the poor lived in apartment buildings called tenements. Crime & fires
Writers Transcendentalism Wrote about living more simply, self- reliance & following your own beliefs. Emerson, Fuller & Thoreau Some formed utopian communities (perfect societies) Romanticism Interest in nature, individual expression & rejection of established rules. Hawthorne, Poe, Dickinson, Longfellow & Whitman.
Reforming Society Many were inspired by Second Great Awakening - a religious movement Prison reform & hospitals for mentally ill – Dorothea Dix Temperance movement – stop drinking alcohol Improved public schools – Horace Mann Schools for the deaf & blind
Women’s Rights Many female abolitionists began fighting for women’s rights. Wanted more educational & job opportunities. Some asked for right to vote. Seneca Falls Convention (1848) – wrote “Declaration of Sentiments” listing injustices against women. Sojourner Truth Elizabeth Cady Stanton Lucretia Mott Lucy Stone Susan B. Anthony