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Recent solar activity as observed with X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX aboard the CORONAS-PHOTON Janusz Sylwester for the SphinX team Solar Physics Division,

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Presentation on theme: "Recent solar activity as observed with X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX aboard the CORONAS-PHOTON Janusz Sylwester for the SphinX team Solar Physics Division,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Recent solar activity as observed with X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX aboard the CORONAS-PHOTON Janusz Sylwester for the SphinX team Solar Physics Division, Space Research Centre Polish Academy of Sciences, Wrocław, Kopernika 11 XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester Obserwacje strumienia promieniowania rentgenowskiego Słońca jako gwiazdy w okresie głębokiego minimum aktywności

2 The SphinX Team SRC PAS Wrocław –Mirek Kowalinski, Szymon Gburek, Marek Siarkowski, Jarek Bakala, Zbigniew Kordylewski, Piotr Podgorski, Barbara Sylwester, Anna Kepa, Witold Trzebiński P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow –Sergey Kuzin-TESIS PI, Andrei Pertsov, Sergey Bogaczev Astronomical Institute, Ondrejov –Frantisek Farnik Astronomical Observatory, Palermo Fabio Reale, Alfonso Collura University College, London –Ken Phillips XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester

3 SphinX: Solar Photometer in X-rays, PI: SRC-PAS Pointing Semi-Three axis stabilised Mass ~2500 kg, 8.2 GB/day Launched 30 Jan at 13:30 UT from Plesetsk Cosmodrome TESIS with SphinX XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester CORONAS PHOTON

4 The orbit CORONAS-F 96 min 550km, 82.5 deg. Polar orbit Life ~7 years Encountered SAA ~1000 cts/s & Polar ovals ~100 cts/s 4 times/96 min XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester

5 SphinX Polish concept, design & manufacture Measures the X-ray fluence of the Sun 0.85 – 15 keV with unprecedented –Time resolution ~ s –Sensitivity 100 x better than GOES XRM – the standard for 30+years –Energy resolution 3x RHESSI (NASA) XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester

6 The construction EUV filters (doubly aluminized Mylar) Photometer –Collimators (+-2.5 deg) –Three apertures –D1, D2, D3 Shutter –Stepper motor FFU –Filters –Targets –D4 Electronics –Front end Amptek –Digital our Controller –Software –reprogramming Heat sink Alignment mirror Total cost of the project ~ 1 mln PLN KBN T12 grant XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester

7 Measurement channels φ : 5 mm A: 20.4mm 2 8 μ s Up to cts/s FWHM: 490 eV P h o t o m e t r i cFFU φ : 4 mm A: 0.50 mm 2 25 μ s Up to cts/s FWHM: 290 eV φ : 4 mm A: mm 2 25 μ s Up to cts/s FWHM: 290 eV φ : 4 mm A: 13.0 mm 2 25 μ s Up to cts/s FWHM: 290 eV Detectors (four units): 256/ 1024 energy bins Amptek, Peltier cooled (-50 deg C below the support T) Si PIN diodes. Detectors support plate passively cooled through the heat sink pipe to the external radiator Photon arrival time measured to within 2μs (in Time Stamping Mode) XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester

8 How performance looks from the tests BESSY Berlin Synchrotron: - All detectors linearity: perfect (0.1% ) over keV; & dynamic range absolute response known to better than 5% against reference synchrotron source. - pile-up matrices known as measured from X-ray 4 crystal monochromator spectra obtained at 8 energies between 1.5 and 8 keV The BESSY synchrotron input spectrum (red) with overplotted response of SphinX D2 detector (black). Nominal effective areas have been used. The agreement is better than 5% in the energy band where SphinX detectors are the most sensitive. XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester

9 GOES X class range to be extended down W/m Solar X-ray flux remains at background levels: i.e. Max Millenium message SphinX detection threshold A = W/m 2 S = W/m 2 Q = W/m 2 SAA S/C night XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester

10 New X-ray classes We are introducing new classes of X-ray solar variability, below GOES A1.0 –A = W/m 2 (present lowest) –S = W/m 2 –Q = W/m 2 SphinX in its D1 channel is capable to observe events 100 x less intense than GOES –Most of variability since the launch is observed to happen below the GOES delectability threshold XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester

11 Solar activity: longer-term only around 80 flares,detected by GOES, among them C2.7 on 6 July 2009 and triple B on March 26, 2009 GOES detection threshold Since Launch: GOES 80 events, SphinX 550 events The Lowest observed level SphinX D2 record cts/s Long S/C day XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester

12 Determination of absolute levels of X-ray solar luminosity E > 1 keV D1- DGI 1s D1 D2 /E 2 E1E1 XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester

13 X-ray fluence at E > 1 keV Example: for data set No. 50 Te 1.71 MK [ 1.69, 1.72 ] EM 6.2 [ 5.7, 6.7] cm -3 Flux [ keV] W/m2 Flux GOES [1 – 8 Å] W/m2 Histogram of T values D1 rate Temperature Emission Measure XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester Thermodynamic Measure D1 rate D2 rate MK Instrument heating

14 TESIS images (courtesy Sergey Bogaczev FIAN) :27: Å :28: Å XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester ~ K ~1 MK

15 Longer exposure: ~18 hours Counts below 3 keV ~ 1 mln Counts above 3 keV ~ 3000 Ratio: Any coronal heating model should obey this measurement from now on XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester

16 XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester

17 Example catalogue page D1 D2 bcg XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester

18 Summary Two components on the lightcurves: –Quasi steady X-ray intensities enhanced when AR are present –The lowest quasi-steady state level, when no AR are present, is also observed in D2, this level is still fluctuating on a 5 min time scale study is in progress. –Flares are seen on-top of this basal variability. –Flare enhancements are being detected from amplitudes above ~ 0.05 dex. –Both short and LDE types of events are present without the sunspots The Sun is the weakest X-ray star within 7 parsecs (Schmitt et al., 1995, ApJ, 450, 392) –with our new estimated luminosity at L X = 1.3 × W 100 x less α Cen A., 47 x less previous estimates (Judge et al., 2003, ApJ, 593, 534) –Luminosity in the 1300 Å is 8.0 × erg s -1, a value which is of interest for heating the Earths atmosphere, much below present estimates –Thermal energy content of the solar corona is 2 × erg XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester

19 The End Please have a look at the poster Barbara Sylwester, Janusz Sylwester, Marek Siarkowski Zakład Fizyki Słońca CBK PAN Wrocław: "Interpretacja widm uzyskanych za pomocą polskiego spektrofotometru SphinX" XXXIV Zjazd PTA Kraków, Solar Session, 15 September 2009 Janusz Sylwester

20 Compilation of SphinX flare catalogue SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS WORKSHOP IV, Wednesday, July 1, 2009 Janusz Sylwester: Activity - SphinX

21 Flare statistics – based on SphinX catalogue interpretation (provisional) Flare amplitude vs the occurence times of events Increasing trend is noticeable GOES detection Threshold SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS WORKSHOP IV, Wednesday, July 1, 2009 Janusz Sylwester: Activity - SphinX

22 30 April :42 A3.1 flare XRT Hinode EIT SOHO 195 Å SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS WORKSHOP IV, Wednesday, July 1, 2009 Janusz Sylwester: Activity - SphinX

23 Spectra E1E1 E2E2 maximum decay

24 Flare evolution on T-EM diagram see poster B. Sylwester et al. T EM ThM = T * sqrt(EM)

25 Diagnostic Diagram Jakimiec, J.; Sylwester, B.; Sylwester, J.; Serio, S.; Peres, G.; Reale, F. 1992A&A Jakimiec, J.Sylwester, B.Sylwester, J.Serio, S.Peres, G.Reale, F. Jakimiec, J.Jakimiec, J.; Sylwester, B.; Sylwester, J.; Mewe, R.; Peres, G., 1986AdSpR JSylwester, B.Sylwester, J. Mewe, R.Peres, G. Palermo-Harvard Code Peres et al., 1982 From HXIS SS RTV: 2 Log T – ½ Log EM = ½ Log(L/2A) L A eHeH C L A eHeH C

26 Diagnostic diagram based on GOES Warning Sylwester, J.Sylwester, J.; Sylwester, B.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Kepa, A.Sylwester, B.Phillips, K. J. H.Kepa, A.

27 06 June 2009 B2.6 flare XRT Hinode SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS WORKSHOP IV, Wednesday, July 1, 2009 Janusz Sylwester: Activity - SphinX TESIS 171 Å Differential 120x120 image: flare-preflare

28 Spectra E1E1 E2E2 maximum decay SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS WORKSHOP IV, Wednesday, July 1, 2009 Janusz Sylwester: Activity - SphinX

29 Flare evolution on T-EM diagram see poster B. Sylwester et al. T EM ThM = T * sqrt(EM)

30 Conclusions SphinX will provide flare flags to Coronas (testing algorithms in orbit) Sphinx measurements allow –To See solar X-ray variability from the bottom level up to X20 –To Determine absolute fluxes above 1 keV, each few s (also GOES in standard bands) –To Study photon arrival times statistics (needs some more work on the instrument operation) –To Study small flare statistics Will supplement RHESSI spectra towards lower energies Will provide the most exhaustive flare catalogue SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS WORKSHOP IV, Wednesday, July 1, 2009 Janusz Sylwester: Activity - SphinX


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