Presentation on theme: "MOTIVATION MOTIVATION DEFINITION:- “Motivation is a psychological process or phenomenon which arises from feeling of needs and wants of individual. It."— Presentation transcript:
MOTIVATION DEFINITION:- “Motivation is a psychological process or phenomenon which arises from feeling of needs and wants of individual. It causes goal directed behavior”.
Definition of Motivation Motivation - the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior
The Nature of Motivation If an employee chooses to work hard one day, and work just hard enough to avoid reprimand, or as little as possible on another day, what then is “Motivation?” Motivation is the set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways.
IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION MOTIVATE PEOPLE TO WORK IMPROVE JOB EFFICIENCY OF WORK PERFORMANCE HELP IN ACHIEVEMENT OF ORG. GOALS LEADS TO STABILITY IN WORK FORCE CREATE FRIENDSIP AND SOCIAL ENVIORNMENT
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Maslow hierarchy of need Herzberg Theory ERG Theory Theory X & Y Theory Z Equity Theory Vroom Theory McClelland Theory
Figure 7.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological Needs Food, Water, Shelter, Sleep,Medicine Masclow was of the opinion that until these needs were satisfied to a degree to maintain life Most important needs are those which must be satisfied to maintain life and have to be fulfilled first of all. Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs
Safety Needs Job, Property, Food or Shelter It also includes protection against any emotional harms Social Needs It includes acceptance in society and colleagues, belongingness, association, friendship and love It includes acceptance in society and colleagues, belongingness, association, friendship and love These needs lead to the formation of information group in the organization and any threat to these groups is taken seriously by the employees These needs lead to the formation of information group in the organization and any threat to these groups is taken seriously by the employees
Esteem Needs Internal Esteem:- Self Respect,autonomy, achievements External Esteem:- Status,Recognition and attention Self Actualisation They Include the desire to excel, the maximise one’s potentials to be what one dreams to be They Include the desire to excel, the maximise one’s potentials to be what one dreams to be
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Hygiene Factor - work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain maintenance factor contributes to employee’s feeling not dissatisfied contributes to absence of complaints Motivation Factor - work condition related to the satisfaction of the need for psychological growth job enrichment leads to superior performance & effort
Motivation-Hygiene Theory of Motivation Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction Company policy & administration Supervision Interpersonal relations Working conditions Salary Status Security SOURCE: Adapted from Frederick Herzberg, The Managerial Choice: To be Efficient or to Be Human. (Salt Lake City: Olympus, 1982). Reprinted by permission. Achievement Achievement recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Salary? Motivation factors increase job satisfaction
ERG THEORY Propounded by Alderfer E – Existent Needs R – Relatedness Needs G – Growth Needs
Physiological need Safety needs Social needs Esteem needs Self actual- isation needs Growth needs Relatedness needs Existence needs Maslow’s hierarchy needs Alderfer’s ERG needs Low order needs Higher order needs
Theory X & Theory Y Management Assumptions Theory X Dislike work Must be threatened with punishment Avoid responsibilities Seek formal direction Require security Little ambition Workers are costs Theory Y View work as natural Self-directed Exercise self-control Accept responsibility Seek responsibility Make innovative decisions Workers are assets
THEORY “Z” Developed by William ouchi. A strong bond between employer and employee.
THEORY “Z” Involvement of employee in decision making process. Involvement of employee in decision making process. No formal organizational Structure. No formal organizational Structure.
THEORY “Z” Mutual trust and confidence. Coordination of human beings.
McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for Power Need for Power - a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life
McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for Affiliation Need for Affiliation - a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people
McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for Achievement Need for Achievement - a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns individuals’ issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties
A. Job Design i. Job Rotation ii. Job Enlargement iii. Job Enrichment iv. Job Sharing
B. Employee Involvement i Participative Management ii Quality Circles iii Flexi Time
C. Rewards System i Pay Structure ii Merit-Based Pay iii Bonuses iv Profit-Sharing Plans v Gainsharing