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1790-1860. Essential Vocabulary 1 Chapt 13 Sect 1 1. Industrial Revolution 2. interchangeable parts, 3. industrial espionage- attempting to obtain trade/manufacturing.

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Presentation on theme: "1790-1860. Essential Vocabulary 1 Chapt 13 Sect 1 1. Industrial Revolution 2. interchangeable parts, 3. industrial espionage- attempting to obtain trade/manufacturing."— Presentation transcript:

1 1790-1860

2 Essential Vocabulary 1 Chapt 13 Sect 1 1. Industrial Revolution 2. interchangeable parts, 3. industrial espionage- attempting to obtain trade/manufacturing secrets by dishonest means 4. Textiles 5. Samuel Slater 6. Eli Whitney 7. Richard Arkwright 8. mass production

3 Essential Vocabulary 2 Chapt 13 Sect 2 1. Lowell system 2. Rhode Island system 3. Francis Cabot Lowell 4. Pawtucket-Rhode Island 5. strikes 6. trade union 7. Sarah G. Bagley

4 Essential Vocabulary 3 Chapt 13, Sects 3 & 4 1. Robert Fulton 2. Clermont 3. Gibbons v Ogden 4. Peter Cooper 5. Tom Thumb, 6. Telegraph 7. Samuel Morse 8. Morse code, 9. John Deere 10. Isaac Singer 11. Cyrus McCormick

5 Industrial Revolution begins in England Review: What was the basis of the economy in the United States during the American Revolution in the New England colonies? Middle colonies? Southern colonies? What was the economic system of the 1600-1700s in which the colonies provided raw materials to the mother country who then refined the goods? What was the problem with creating goods by hand?

6 Industrial Revolution begins in Textiles Define Industrial Revolution: Textiles first industry to change to machinery What are textiles? What two processes are involved? Inventions that revolutionize textiles James Hargreaves invents spinning jenny to make thread Richard Arkwright invents water frame to make thread using water power What are the effects of making thread by machine?

7 Textile machinery comes to America Samuel Slater brings mechanization of textiles from England to US First mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island Mill made thread but cloth was woven in workers’ homes More textile mills were built in New England New England had quick moving rivers that were good power source

8 More textile Inventions Eli Whitney Wanted to mass produce guns using interchangeable parts- pieces that are made exactly the same Used this technology to invent cotton gin for removing seeds from cotton and speeding the manufacturing of textiles Mass production created many jobs in Northeastern US

9 Labor for the mills Samuel Slater To find workers, at first he trained apprentices-young men who worked for several years to learn the work-but they left his mill as soon as their time was up Later Slater hired entire families to work in mills Children and adults worked in mills- lowered Slater’s costs since paid kids so little Slater divided mill work into simple tasks so children could do it Became known as Rhode Island System

10 Labor for the mills Lowell System Developed by Francis Cabot Lowell Used water power to run mill to produce both thread and weave cloth Hired young, single women to work in factory Women lived on site in boarding houses Typical workday was 12-14 hours Numerous health issues-like breathing cotton dust all day

11 Workers organize for better working conditions Wages in factories remained low Waves of immigrants (people coming to US) were unskilled and ready to take any job possible Skilled workers began to organize to combat low wages and long hours in factories Trade Unions-group of workers who tried to increase wages and lower number of working hours (usual day 12- 14 hours—six days a week) Strikes- workers stopped working in order to force factory owners to improve working conditions Generally, the government and factory owners were against workers’ efforts

12 Labor Reform Efforts Sarah Bagley- founded the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association in 1844 Worked for a 10 hour day Union achieve some success Connecticut, Maine, New Hampshire, Ohio, Pennsylvania pass 10 hour day

13 Transportation Revolution Transportation Revolution: a period of rapid growth in the speed and convenience of travel US built roads and canals throughout Northeast Why were the roads in the northeast? Steamboat- made travel faster and cheaper Invented by Robert Fulton His ship was the Clermont Gibbons v Ogden--dealt with steamboats- US Supreme court case that interpreted the necessary and proper clause and a broad interpretation of Congress’s powers

14 Transportation Revolution Railroads First invented in England in early 1800s Became popular in US when Peter Cooper built Tom Thumb-a small steam engine railroad Benefits: Linked cities, increased trade Like steamboats, railroads changed travel-making it faster and cheaper, but also dangerous

15 more technological improvements Communication: Samuel Morse invented telegraph-instant communication across great distances Telegraph sent pulses of electricity across lines Morse invented Morse Code to communicate messages Different combinations of dots and dashes represented each letter of alphabet

16 New Factories Factories shift from water to steam power Can be built anywhere rather than next to flowing rivers Could locate closer to labor (workers) or railroad to move goods Led to growth of cities since that was where the jobs were More dependable power source

17 Better Farm Equipment Midwest and South were primarily agricultural Technology comes to agriculture John Deere- invented steel (rather than iron) plow to cut through heavy clay more easily Cyrus McCormick- invented harvesting machine – mechanical reaper

18 Technology for the Home Isaac Singer improved sewing machine- easy to use Other inventions Iceboxes- ice to cool food and keep it fresher longer Iron cook stoves replaced cooking in fireplace Indoor plumbing Matches invented 1849

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