Presentation on theme: "2-4-13 What is Compromise? Is compromise necessary? When have you compromised? Why did you compromise?"— Presentation transcript:
2-4-13 What is Compromise? Is compromise necessary? When have you compromised? Why did you compromise?
Chap 2.4 Creating the Constitution Met in Philadelphia May 25, 1787 George Washington elected president of the convention Worked in Secret Framers new generation of American politics Changing Direction Original goal improve the Articles of Confederation May 30, 5 days after starting, adopted resolution to create a new government.
Compromise Needed to Create the Constitution Compromise important part of government 13 States very different in geography and economic situations Wide differences of opinion among delegates, but delegates agreed on basic fundamental issues Need of new national government, federal in nature Concepts of Popular Sovereignty, Limited Government, Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances
Two Plans Proposed for New Government Virginia Plan Large States Number of Houses: 3 2 – Bicameral Branches of Representation: Government By size or wealth Stronger Central Government New Jersey Plan Small States Number of Houses: 1 – Unicameral Representation: Equal for all states Weak Central Government
Connecticut (Great) Compromise Problem? Representation in Congress Proposals Small States wanted Equal Representation Large States wanted by Population or Wealth Solution? House of Representatives represented by Population as desired by Large States Senate has Equal Representation as desired by Small States
Three Fifths Compromise Problem? Should Slaves be counted in population? Proposals Slave-holding States wanted to count them Non Slave-holding States did not Solution? Count all Free Persons. Count three of every five Slaves (all other persons). Slaves counted for representation (South wanted), but also for taxation (North wanted). Eliminated in the 13 th amendment 1865.
Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise Problem? New Government needed to regulate trade – major problem with Articles of Confederation. Southern States concerns: New Government may be funded by taxing exports (tobacco was biggest export at the time). New Government would interfere with Slave Trade. Proposals Ban Government’s ability to tax exports. Forbid any discussion about the Slave trade in Congress. Solution? Both proposals were agreed to. Ban on discussion or legislation of slave trade for 20 years.
2-5-13 What are the Federalist papers? Are they relevant today? Is the Constitution Relevant today?
Chap 2.5 Ratifying the Constitution Convention completed work on September 17, 1787 (p. 54). Second Continental Congress accepted work of the Convention. Forwarded the proposed Constitution to the States of their vote. Needed approval of 9 states to ratify. Nine states approved by June 1788, but neither VA or NY had ratified it.
Arguments For and Against Federalists Supported Ratification Favored stronger national government Argued the weaknesses of present government Later became 1 st political party in US Anti-Federalists Against Ratification Favored weaker national government, stronger state government Concern – protection of personal liberties Insisted on a Bill of Rights added to the Constitution
The Federalist Papers Series of 85 political papers written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison Supported the ratification of the Constitution Hamilton wrote 51, Madison wrote 26, Jay wrote 5 Hamilton Madison co-wrote 3 Appeared in newspapers where ratification was in doubt, New York and Virginia Brutus and Cato, among others, versus Publius
The Anti Federalist Papers A collection of articles, written in opposition to the ratification of the 1787 United States Constitution. Unlike the Federalist Papers written in support of the Constitution, the authors of these articles, mostly operating under pseudonyms, were not engaged in a strictly organized project.
Ratification and New Beginning New York Becomes 11 th state to ratify July 26,1788 Convinced by the arguments in the “Federalist Papers” Collection of arguments for the new government written by Madison, Hamilton and John Jay Persuasive to the benefits of the proposed government Argued the weakness of present government New Government convened March 4, 1789 George Washington unanimously elected First President.