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© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Groups In Organization OBJECTIVES: A.GROUPS- DEFINITION AND ROLES -STAGES (EVOLUTION) - TYPES - NORMS B. TEAMS- DEFINITION - TYPES - TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Groups vs. Crowds WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GROUPS AND CROWDS? A GROUP HAS AN ORGANIZATION (collective goal) A CROWD - INDIVIDUALS WITHOUT A COMMON GOAL DEFINITION: A GROUP - IT IS 2 OR MORE PEOPLE WHO INTERACT FREELY, SHARE COLLECTIVE NORMS AND GOALS AND HAVE A COMMON IDENTITY
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Characteristics Of Groups INTERACTING NORMS GOALS IDENTIFICATION (ID)
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Main Functions Of Groups EACH GROUP HAS TWO MAIN FUNCTIONS: TASK (or goal) ORIENTED MAINTENANCE (social support) FUNCTIONS ARE RELATED TO EACH OTHER THROUGH: ACTIVITY INTERACTION SENTIMENT (postoje) ACTIVITY INTERACTION SENTIMENT
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Advantages Of Groups MANAGERS SHOULD SUPPORT GROUPS: OFFER THE POTENTIAL FOR SYNERGY CAN HELP FOSTER INNOVATIONS SOMETIMES MAKE BETTER DECISIONS THAN INDIVIDUALS DO CAN HELP GAIN COMMITMENTS CAN EXERT CONTROL OVER THEIR MEMBERS GROUPS ARE NATURAL PHENOMENA
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Disadvantages Of Groups MANAGERS SHOULD BE CAREFUL ABOUT SOCIAL LOAFING - THE TENDENCY OF PEOPLE NOT TO WORK AS HARD IN GROUPS AS THEY WOULD INDIVIDUALLY (THAT IS THE “RINGLEMANN EFFECT”) THE REASON FOR SUCH A BEHAVIOR IS: THEIR CONTRIBUTION IS LESS NOTICEABLE THEY PREFER TO SEE OTHERS CARRY THE WORK LOAD
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Stages (Evolution) Of Groups THERE ARE 6 STAGES 1.ORIENTATION or FORMING division of labour, roles 2.CHALLENGES AND CONFLICTS or STORMING accept or reject the group, what is the goal, who is the leader, what are the means, etc. if a potential member will enter “the bus”, what is “the bus” direction, who is “the driver”, and what we want to accomplish by this “ride” STAGE 2 REQUIRES CONSENSUS (members realize that the group can do something what they cannot do individually) 3.COHESION or NORMING (that is “WE”) (stages 1 - 3 are collective)
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Stages (Evolution) Of Groups 4.DELUSION or PERFORMING people are happy - individual needs are subordinated to the needs of a group 5.DISILLUSION people judge the leader, goals, etc. 6.ACCEPTANCE or ADJOURNING this is tailored on individual differences (Stages 4 - 6 deal with interpersonal relations)
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Types Of Groups In The CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA: NORMS TASKS TIME, etc. NORMS + TASKS = CONTEXT (MAIN CRITERIA) THERE ARE TWO MAIN TYPES OF GROUPS: A. FORMAL GROUPS B. INFORMAL GROUPS Organization
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Types of Groups FORMAL GROUPS = “OFFICIAL” GROUPS THAT IS: SOME OUTSIDE PARTY WANTS THIS PEOPLE TO BE A GROUP INFORMAL GROUPS = PEOPLE CREATE A GROUP BY THEMSELVES IN AN ORGANIZATION THERE ARE FORMAL AS WELL AS INFORMAL GROUPS INFORMAL GRPOUS USUALLY EXIST WITHIN FORMAL GROUPS
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Typical Informal Groups 1.Apathetic group: (there is no leader, low cohesion, members are usually just “listeners”) 2.Ernatic group: (there is a strong leadership but very low cohesion. Typical example is a temporary job group) 3.Strategic informal group (this is the Trade Union type of group. There is a strong leadership & high cohesion. Management has a lot of problems to deal with this type of group) BUT REMEMBER: A REAL UNION IS A FORMAL ORGANIZATION. (This is just the type of a group.)
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Group Performance (Effectiveness) EFFECTIVE GROUPS - ACHIEVE HIGH LEVELS OF BOTH TASK PERFORMANCE & MEMBER SATISFACTION (human resource maintenance) Arousal (vzbudenie, napr. záujmu ) Performance Low High Optimum
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 If people are overstimulated, the result is the same as if they are understimulated If for some reason performance decreases – the human nature feature is a change (something, but people need a change) Usually, there are 2 motivation factors in a group 1. GOAL SETTING 2. REWARDS
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Goal-setting If we open a thick book… Performance Arousal
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 When we come to the last paragraph… Performance Arousal
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Psychologically happens – immediately rising INTEREST CONCENTRATION PERFORMANCE
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Group Size & Group Effectiveness Group Size Group Effectiveness 5-7 members
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Group Norms ROLE: IS A SET OF BEHAVIOR OF AN INDIVIDUAL IN THE GROUP NORM: IS A SET OF BEHAVIOR OF THE GROUP AS WHOLE IF SOME ROLE IS MISSING - “THE GAME” CANNOT BE PLAYED
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Types of Norms 1. MEMBERSHIP NORMS 2. INFLUENCE NORMS (who is the leader and who are followers) 3. AFFECTION NORMS (interpersonal relationships) 4. GROWTH NORMS (what are acceptable ways of growth)
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Teams & Teamwork TEAM = IS A SMALL GROUP OF PEOPLE WITH COMPLIMENTARY SKILLS, WHO WORK TOGETHER TO ACHIEVE A COMMON PURPOSE FOR WHICH THEY HOLD THEMSELVES COLLECTIVELY ACCOUNTABLE TYPES OF TEAMS: THERE ARE SEVERAL CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA. THE MOST IMPORTANT ONES ARE: Purpose Organization Time, etc.
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Teams by Purpose Teams that recommend things ESTABLISHED TO STUDY SPECIFIC PROBLEMS AND RECOMMEND SOLUTIONS. THEY ARE TEMPORARY TEAMS Teams that run things THESE ARE TYPICAL MANAGEMENT TEAMS Teams that make or do things PERFORM TASKS SUCH AS MARKETING, PRODUCTION, ETC.
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Teams by Organization Problem-solving teams MEET REGULARLY & EXAMINE IMPORTANT WORKPLACE ISSUES. A TYPICAL EXAMPLE IS A QUALITY CONTROL CIRCLE Cross-functional teams BRING TOGETHER PERSONS FROM DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS TO WORK ON A COMMON TASK Virtual teams VIRTUAL TEAM OPERATES WITH MEMBERS LINKED TOGETHER ELECTRONICALLY VIA NETWORKKED COMPUTERS Self-managing teams ARE EMPOWERED TO MAKE DECISIONS ABOUT PLANNING, DOING, AND EVALUATING THEIR DAILY WORK
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 TEAMBUILDING IS A COOPERATIVE WAY TO GATHER AND ANALYZE DATA TO IMPROVE TEAMWORK THE TEAMWORK ADVANTAGE: COMES FROM THE TWO MAIN ATTRIBUTES OF THE TEAM: THE TEAM MEMBERS MUTUAL ACCOUNTABILITY FOR THE RESULTS MULTISKILLING – TEAM MEMBERS ARE TRAINED IN SKILLS NEEDED TO PERFORM DIFFERENT JOBS
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