Presentation on theme: "Chapter 31 Section 4 Toward Victory. Setting the Scene General Douglas MacArthur stood at the dock on Corregidor in March 1942. A boat waited to evacuate."— Presentation transcript:
Setting the Scene General Douglas MacArthur stood at the dock on Corregidor in March 1942. A boat waited to evacuate him from the fortified island in the Philippines. Although the United States Army and Filipino defense forces had battled to keep the Japanese out of the island chain, they had not been successful. Thousands of Allied civilian men, women, and children were being held in prison camps throughout the islands, and American and Filipino soldiers were under attack on the Bataan peninsula. After reaching Australia, MacArthur pledged his determination to free the Philippines with the words "I shall return.” Allied troops found that the war in Southeast Asia and the Pacific was very different from that in Europe. Most battles were fought at sea, on tiny islands, or in deep jungles.
I. War in the Pacific By May 1942, the Japanese controlled much of SE Asia, many Pacific islands, and the Philippines
I. War in the Pacific Hundreds of American and Filipino soldiers were killed during the Bataan Death March
I. War in the Pacific In May and June 1942, the US stopped the Japanese advance at the battles of the Coral Sea and Midway Island
I. War in the Pacific August 1942 - US Marines and Soldiers landed at Guadalcanal and began the "island- hopping" campaign
I. War in the Pacific By 1944, Admiral Nimitz’s navy was blockading Japan; bombers pounded Japanese cities and industries
I. War in the Pacific October 1944 - MacArthur began to retake the Philippines; the British were winning in the jungles of Burma and Malaya MacArthur returns to the Philippines British in Burma
II. The Nazis Defeated Allied bombers hammered Germany with round- the-clock bombing raids Dresden, Germany
II. The Nazis Defeated December 1944 - Allied armies advanced into Belgium; Germany launched a massive counterattack – the Battle of the Bulge
II. The Nazis Defeated March 1945 - the Allies crossed the Rhine River into Germany; Soviet troops closed in on Berlin Crossing the Rhine River near Worms, Germany Red Army in Berlin
II. The Nazis Defeated Late April - American and Soviet soldiers linked up at the Elbe River
II. The Nazis Defeated As Soviet troops entered Berlin, Hitler committed suicide. Germany surrendered on May 7, 1945 – V-E Day A soldier raises the Soviet flag over the Reichstag in Berlin
III. Defeat of Japan Most of the Japanese navy and air force had been destroyed, yet the Japanese still had a two- million man army
III. Defeat of Japan Officials estimated that an invasion of Japan would cost over a million casualties - scientists offered another way to end the war Provision Order of Battle for Invasion of Japan (August 1945)
III. Defeat of Japan July 1945 - Allied scientists successfully tested the first atomic bomb at Alamogordo, New Mexico On July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb, equivalent to eighteen thousand tons of TNT, was detonated at the Trinity Site
III. Defeat of Japan President Harry Truman warned the Japanese to surrender or face destruction, but they ignored the deadline The "Potsdam Declaration" described Japan's present perilous condition and ended with an ultimatum: Japan must immediately agree to unconditionally surrender, or face "prompt and utter destruction".
III. Defeat of Japan August 6,1945 - the Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, killing more than 70,000 people Crew of the Enola Gay Hiroshima after the atomic bomb
III. Defeat of Japan August 8 th - the USSR declared war on Japan and invaded Manchuria - Japan still did not surrender
III. Defeat of Japan August 9 th - the US dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, killing more than 40,000 people Aftermath of Nagasaki bombingAtomic “Mushroom cloud”
III. Defeat of Japan Emperor Hirohito forced the government to surrender - the peace treaty was signed aboard the battleship Missouri on September 2, 1945
An Ongoing Controversy Dropping the atomic bomb brought a quick end to the war. It also unleashed terrifying destruction. Ever since, people have debated whether the United States should have used the bomb. Why did Truman use the bomb? First, he was convinced that Japan would not surrender without an invasion that would result in an enormous loss of both American and Japanese lives. Truman also may have hoped that the bomb would impress the Soviet Union with American power. At any rate, the Japanese surrendered shortly after the bombs were dropped, and World War II was ended.