2 Plot Mountain in Drama Exposition: Opening moments Location (symbols and metaphors)Meeting of charactersWhat happened before the curtain roseWhat is happening now
3 Puts forces on crash course to meet each other Rising Action:We get involvedPuts forces on crash course to meet each otherProtagonist/Antagonist-journey towards each otherDramatic situation: Usually describes the protagonist’s motivation and the forces that oppose its realization
4 Basic meeting of protagonist/antagonist Climax:Basic meeting of protagonist/antagonistTension reaches its greatest heightDoes NOT HAVE to be dramaticDramatic question about to be answered
5 Events that occur as a result of the climax Falling Action:Events that occur as a result of the climaxWe know the action will end soonRecognizable in tragedies: the protagonist’s fortunes proceed downhill to an inexorable end
6 Resolution/Denouement: Final moments of the play All the action is tied upCharacters may be enriched and wiser
7 Characters Protagonist: The leading character(s) Usually a good force and the one the audience roots forAntagonist:The character that comes in conflict with the main characterDoes not always have to be “bad” or a person
8 Foreshadowing Always a type of foreshadowing in a play Can take place as early as the expositionAlways be looking for clues while reading
9 The primary unresolved issue in a drama as it unfolds Dramatic Question(s)The primary unresolved issue in a drama as it unfoldsThe result of artful plotting, raising suspense and expectation in a play’s action as it moves toward its outcome
10 Subplot Double plot A secondary arrangement of incidents Involves someone besides the protagonistUsually occur in Shakespeare’s plays
11 Stage BusinessNonverbal action that engages the attention of an audienceCan be as small as a doorknob turning, creating SUSPENSE
12 Unities3 formal qualities recommended by Italian Renaissance literary critics to unify a plot in order to give it a cohesive and complete integrityAction: Single series of interrelated actions—must be entirely serious or funnyTime: play takes place within 24 hoursPlace: play takes place in a single location
13 Closet Drama A play designed to be read aloud rather than performed Do you think Trifles fits this definition?
14 Ex.: classical Greek theater or the Elizabethan theater ConventionsCustomary methods of presenting an action, usual and recognizable devices that an audience is willing to acceptEx.: classical Greek theater or the Elizabethan theater
15 SoliloquyA dramatic monologue in which we seem to overhear the character’s innermost thoughts uttered aloud
16 ThemeThe general point or truth about human beings that may be drawn from the play
17 COMEDYAn important difference between comedy and tragedy lies in the attitude toward human failing that is expected of us.Comedies present situations differently so there is a clear line between humor and tragedy.
18 Comedy Originated in festivities to celebrate spring Ritual performances in praise of DionysusWhatever makes us laugh (broad definition)Can be an entire play or only a part in the play (comic character or a comic situation)
19 Tends to be critical of people, their manners, and their morals Satiric ComedyHuman weakness or folly is ridiculed from a vantage point of supposedly enlightening superiorityTends to be critical of people, their manners, and their morals
20 High ComedyRelies more on wit and wordplay than on physical action for its humorPoints out the pretension and hypocrisy of human behaviorAvoids jokes about physical appearance
21 EpigramBrief and witty statement that memorably expresses some truth, large or small“There is only one thing in the world worse than being talked about, and that is not being talked about.”
22 A witty satire set in elite or fashionable society Comedy of MannersA type of High ComedyA witty satire set in elite or fashionable societyPopular in the Restoration Period (period after 1660 when Charles II reopened the London playhouses after being closed by the Puritans for being “immoral”)
23 Low Comedy Opposite extreme of humor Places great emphasis on physical action and visual gagsVerbal jokes do not require much intellect to appreciateRevels in making fun of whatever will get a good laughSatirizes human failingsDrunkenness, stupidity, lust, senility, trickery, insult, clumsiness
24 Burlesque A type of Low Comedy A humorous parody or travesty of another play or kind of playUsually makes fun of serious situations“Scary Movie(s)” Anyone?
25 Farce Another type of Low Comedy Features exaggerated character types in ludicrous and improbable situations, provoking laughter about sexual mix-ups, crude verbal jokes, horseplay, etc.Descendant of commedia dell’arte
26 commedia dell’arteDeveloped by guilds of professional Italian actors in the mid-sixteenth centuryPlaying stock characters, masked commedia players improvised dialogue around a given scenario (brief outline marking entrances of characters and the main course of action)
27 Features pratfalls, pie throwing, fisticuffs, and other violent action Slapstick ComedyType of farceFeatures pratfalls, pie throwing, fisticuffs, and other violent action“The Three Stooges”
28 A Midsummer Night’s Dream Romantic ComedyPlot focuses on one or more pairs of young lovers who overcome difficulties to achieve a happy ending (usually marriage)A Midsummer Night’s Dream
29 Ends sorrowfully and disastrously—outcome seems inevitable TRAGEDYA play that portrays a serious conflict between human beings and some superior, overwhelming forceEnds sorrowfully and disastrously—outcome seems inevitable
30 TragedyProtagonist undergoes a reversal of fortune, from good to bad, ending in catastrophe
31 Tragic FlawA fatal weakness or moral flaw in the protagonist that brings him or her to a bad end.
32 Tragedy Conventional Structure Prologue:Preparatory SceneEx. Oedipus asking the suppliants why they have come and the priest telling about the plague ravaging Thebes
33 The song for the entrance of the chorus Episodes: Parados:The song for the entrance of the chorusEpisodes:Action of play (like a scene or act)Separated by danced choral songs or odes
34 The chorus usually has the final lines. Exodos:The last scene in which the characters and chorus concluded the action and departedThe chorus usually has the final lines.
35 Aristotle’s Concept of Tragedy Protagonist—the hero or chief character is a person of “high estate” (royalty)Tragic hero is fallibleDownfall is a result of hamartiathe hero’s error or transgression or his flaw or weakness of characterHubris extreme pride, leading to overconfidence
36 Aristotle Cont…5. Purgation (or katharsis) final effect of the playwright’s skillful use of plotting, character, and poetry to elicit pity and fear from the audiencerefers to the feeling of emotional release or calm the spectator feels as the end of tragedy Taught the audience compassion for the vulnerabilities of others and schooled in justice and other civic virtues
37 Reversal reversal in fortune Aristotle Cont…Recognition the discovery of some fact not known before or some person’s true identityReversal reversal in fortune Usually occurs when a certain result is expected and instead its opposite effect is produced