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Imperialism in India Yoona Cha, HiJo Byeun, Jinna Park.

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Presentation on theme: "Imperialism in India Yoona Cha, HiJo Byeun, Jinna Park."— Presentation transcript:

1 Imperialism in India Yoona Cha, HiJo Byeun, Jinna Park

2 Resources  Opium  Pepper  Cinnamon  Indigo  Cotton  Textile

3 Mughal Empire  1526 – late 17 th century/ early 18 th century  Developed highly sophisticated mixed Indo-Persian culture  became weak towards the end

4 British East India Company  joint-stock company formed by the British  used a tacit called “divide and conquer” to conquer India  Objective: make earnings for people through exploitation of natural resources founded in India  Set up trading posts in India  Developed almost complete political & economic control  Monopolized Indian trade  Expanded control in India through wars and commercial activity

5 Sepoy (Indian) Mutiny  1857-1859  Sepoy: a soldier native to India who is allied to a European power (esp. UK)  rebel against British East India Company for coercion of Christianity and other European customs Also known as India’s First War of Independence  Resulted in direct British control  Ended with peace treaty (July 1858)

6 Battle of Plassey  1757  Victor: British East India Company  Determined company rule in India (established in South Asia over next 90 years)

7 Queen Victoria  1877 became empress of India  Gave existing Indian royalties extended powers as long as they stayed faithful to the queen

8 Thuggees  A term for people who robbed and murdered travelers on the road

9 Jawaharlal Nehru  1 st Prime Minister or India  Leader of left-winged Indian National Congress  Advocated complete independence from the British Empire  Recognized as Gandhi's “political heir”

10 Mohammed Ali Jinnah  1876-1948  Founder of Pakistan + First Governor-General  leader of Muslim League

11 Salt March  1930  A campaign proposed by Gandhi  Gandhi sent a letter to Lord Lieutenant, but he did not even reply  Did not want to pay taxes placed on salt, thus walked a 200-mile journey from Ashram Ahmedabad to the Arabian to pick up a few grains of salt  Gandhi hoped to spread the action to the rest of India  "Ashram in Exodus”: prayer, spinning and keeping a diary

12 Muslim League  Incepted in Dhaka 1906  Muslims represented 40 % of the Indian population  Majority of Muslim leaders did not trust Hindu, thus were reluctant to join the Congress Party (Indian National Congress 1885)

13 Amritsar Massacre  April 13, 1919  Also known as Jallianwala Bagh Massacre  British Indian Army under control of Reginald Dyer shot civilians of men, women and children  Around 1526 casualties

14 Indian Nationalism  Movement created by Indians to regain control of their country  Became dissatisfied with restricted grants by the British  Lacked equal job opportunities  Could not obtain jobs of high positions in government  More Indians received ‘quality’ education, thus developing dignity in the Indian heritage

15 Indian Independence Movement  “various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both nonviolent and militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial administration in South Asia.”

16 First Meeting of Indian National Congress  Incepted in 1885 by middle class Indians  Goals: democracy, equality, self-rule  Subdivision of Bengal influenced more radical actions  Ex) Swadeshi movement: the purchase and use of Indian made products and resources and boycott of foreign products Forerunner of Gandhi, and India’s independence

17 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi  1869-1948  Political & spiritual leader of India during British Imperialism  Promoted passive boycotts (non- violence)  Ex) Spinning wheel  1921, Gained leadership of Indian National Congress  Achieved Swaraj

18 Swaraj  “self-governance”  Gandhi’s concept of India’s independence from foreign domination  "It may be taunted with the retort that this is all Utopian and, therefore not worth a single thought... Let India live for the true picture, though never realizable in its completeness. We must have a proper picture of what we want before we can have something approaching it.”  Parel, Anthony. Hind Swaraj and other writings of M. K. Gandhi. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, 1997, pp 189.

19 Consequences  Good:  medical + technology development  Extended education (establishment of universities + schools)  Terminate problems in Indian culture  Ex) burning alive, child brides, caste system, etc.  Infrastructure  Ex) construction of roads, railroads, telegraph cables, and canals

20 Consequences II  Bad:  Prejudice  Coercion of labor  Influence of European customs on religious practices  Hindrance of economic progress, thus still one of the most substandard countries in the world

21 Bibliography     

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