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Alberta Volleyball Coaching Symposium 2009 Training Principles and Program Design for the High Performance Athlete.

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Presentation on theme: "Alberta Volleyball Coaching Symposium 2009 Training Principles and Program Design for the High Performance Athlete."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alberta Volleyball Coaching Symposium 2009 Training Principles and Program Design for the High Performance Athlete

2 OVERVIEW –Introduce important ideas and concepts. –Physical Systems – Performance Pyramid –Training Programs. –Principles of performance training. –Essential Program Components –Movement Preparation, Prehabilitation, Pillar Training, Power Training, Strength Training, Regeneration. –Final Thoughts –Pre-Practice & Pre-Game Mov’t Prep Plan –Questions & Discussion

3 INTRODUCTION Goals of a Performance Training Program: –Injury Reduction (especially overuse) –Performance enhancement (not attractiveness enhancement) –Maximize ability to manage stress through correct planning and implementation of training protocols –Increase confidence on and off the court!

4 INTRODUCTION “As to methods there may be a million and then some, but principles are few. The man who grasps principles, can successfully select his own methods. The man who tries methods, ignoring principles, is sure to have trouble.” - Ralph Waldo Emerson

5 INTRODUCTION Training requires balance of body systems –“The more educated an athlete becomes about the workings of the body, the less intimidated and insecure the athlete will be when making decisions about training.” - Gray Cook –By adopting efficient and effective training systems early, many injuries caused by an unbalanced approach and poor problem solving techniques can be prevented.

6 INTRODUCTION Many training programs are a mix of fact, fiction, biased opinions, advertising, media hype, and personal anecdotes. –Many athletes try things because their friends, teammates or favourite pros say they work. Where are you getting your information? Discuss media hype –Assessment tools/evaluation?

7 INTRODUCTION Coaches and trainers should present efficient and effective methods for enhancing performance by addressing the fundamentals of human movement. –“Athletes knowing more about programs than they do about their own bodies is the medical equivalent of a patient knowing more about the medication than the disease it is supposed to treat.” - Gray Cook

8 PHYSICAL SYSTEMS Motor Programs –If muscles, joints, ligaments etc are the body’s hardware, then motor programs are the software –Motor programs are ways the brain stores information about movement. –It is the body’s way to conserve energy and storage space. –The more a motor program is used, the more efficient and refined it becomes.

9 PHYSICAL SYSTEMS The way an athlete moves, not the way an athlete looks, defines the athlete. –Are you bodybuilding or enhancing movement? An athlete must develop sound movement patterns long before worrying about performance enhancement. –These movement patterns are not possible in the presence of poor flexibility or poor body control (mobility and stability)

10 PHYSICAL SYSTEMS Joints –2 forms of support – ligaments and muscles –Ligaments support joint in each direction it naturally moves (tensile strength) –Synovial fluid within the joint serves to lubricate and nourish the cartilage –Muscles surrounding joints fall into two categories: Stabilizers and Prime movers

11 PHYSICAL SYSTEMS Stabilizers: - First (deepest) layer of muscle surrounding a joint - Squeeze it together giving it instantaneous support when joint is moved or loaded Prime movers: - Larger, force producing muscles that pull joint in a certain direction as the muscles shorten

12 PHYSICAL SYSTEMS Microtrauma –Results from small amounts of stress imposed on the body over time by poor biomechanics and overtraining. Poor biomechanics refers to movement mistakes in which the body compensates and uses suboptimal joint alignment, muscle coordination, and posture. Top athletes spend more time working on weakness than showing off strength

13 PHYSICAL SYSTEMS Movement -goal of a training program should be to create efficient movement so the athlete can stay relaxed, conserve energy, practice more, and compete with less stress -Movement is ultimately what defines great athletes (examples?) -Isolated muscle development does not play a major role in motor pattern development

14 PHYSICAL SYSTEMS Muscle size and symmetry are the goals of bodybuilding, but sports are about movement – speed, agility, quickness, power, control, coordination, and stamina Training for sports is about functional movement patterns –Muscles will develop naturally as different patterns are worked

15 PHYSICAL SYSTEMS Performance Pyramid Functional Skill Functional Performance Functional Movement

16 PHYSICAL SYSTEMS Functional Movement (1 st tier/foundation) –The ability to move through fundamental patterns – mobility and stability. Functional Performance (2 nd tier) –The ability to produce or generate efficient and powerful movements (gross athleticism) Functional Skill (3 rd tier) –The ability to do a given activity or sport

17 TRAINING PRINCIPLES Training is simple game of stimulus- response. Workout is stimulus. Response occurs after workout. Response affected by quality of w/o and quality of recovery. Work + Recovery = Success

18 TRAINING PRINCIPLES Over-training: an accumulation of training and/or non-training stress resulting in long- term decrease in performance. –Incomplete/under-recovery –Monotonous/unprogressive training –Continuous failure in training/competition –Lifestyle factors (ie. stress, sleep, nutrition etc)

19 TRAINING PRINCIPLES Types of Stress –Environmental Temperature, altitude, humidity, gym –Psychological/Social Personality conflicts, family problems, pressure to perform, arousal levels, complacency, apathy –Physiological/Biochemical Sleep, nutrition, prescription or recreational drugs –Anatomical/Structural Injury, overuse, poor exercise technique, poor biomechanics, surgery

20 TRAINING PRINCIPLES “A bad program done well is better than a good program done poorly” Athletes need coaching, not programs. Technique, technique, technique. Why do athletes cheat? Employ principle of technical failure –Never count a rep that was completed after technique broke down.

21 TRAINING PRINCIPLES Why are the following exercises important? –Bodyweight lower body exercises (ie. squats, lunges, split-squats etc.) –Front squats –Pause or slow eccentric bench press –Planking (a.k.a. bridging)

22 TRAINING PRINCIPLES Answer: good exercise selection is purposeful and is designed to eliminate or correct critical flaws. Consider the following as a good place to start: –Is it done standing? –Is it multi-joint? –Is it done with free-weights? –Is it characteristic of explosive sports?

23 PLAYFIT PRINCIPLES Movement Integrated Training –Exercises designed to improve the neuromuscular efficiency of the kinetic chain in order to stabilize, reduce force, and produce force in multiple planes of motion at various speeds.

24 PLAYFIT PRINCIPLES Essential Components of a Sound Program –Movement Preparation/Activation/Mobilization –Prehabilitation/Corrective Exercise –Pillar Training –Elasticity/Power/Reactive Training –Strength/Resistance Training –Energy System Development –Regeneration

25 PLAYFIT PRINCIPLES Ensure the body is properly ‘warmed-up.’ Muscle activation, mobility, flexibility and stability are vital components to performance. Begin every session with Movement Preparation. Address injuries or biomechanical flaws. Perform Corrective exercises or ‘re/pre-habilitation’ exercises early in the workout (prior to strength). Always train the Pillar or Core. Every workout should include pillar and/or core training of some kind (activation, stabilization, strength, power etc.).

26 PLAYFIT PRINCIPLES Explosive Movements before strength work. Exercises that stress the nervous system must be done when both the muscular and nervous systems are fresh (ie. Olympic lifts, plyometrics, medicine ball, speed work etc.). Multi-joint exercises over single-joint exercises. Single-joint exercises for hinge joints are a waste of time! Exception: only for joints with high degrees of freedom and stability needs (“isolation for innervation” (ie. hip abduction)). Limit machine use. Only exception: adjustable cable column for rotary training. Every other exercise can be done better with a weight than with a machine.

27 PLAYFIT PRINCIPLES Develop single leg stability and strength. “Most important quality in performance training.” Split squats, lunges, single-leg squats, slide board training, unstable surface training, RNT etc). Balance knee-dominant and hip-dominant lower body training (1:1 Ratio) Front squats vs. straight legged deadlifts (single leg?). Balance pushing and pulling upper body training Chest Press/Shoulder Press vs. Rows/Pull-ups. Recover from workouts. Rest, sleep, stretch, ice, muscle therapy, hot tub, nutrition etc.

28 MOVEMENT PREPARATION An active warm-up that replaces traditional pre- exercise cardio (usually linear) and stretching. –Goals are to loosen tight muscles, increase core temperature, activate, mobilize, and elongate your muscles in order to optimally prepare the entire body for the workout and also to make long-term flexibility gains. This phase will improve your balance, proprioception, mobility, flexibility, stability, and strength.

29 MOVEMENT PREPARATION STEP 1: Foam Roll/Massage Ball –Purpose is to decrease density of muscle tissue (ironing for the muscles). Muscles respond to injury or overuse by increasing in density (referred to as knots or trigger points). STEP 2: Static Stretch or AIS (Active Isolated Stretch) –Yes…before the workout. A “cold” muscle may undergo some plastic deformation and increase in length. –Focus only on particularly tight/shortened muscles. “It is more dangerous to be overly flexible in one muscle group than to be tight in all of them.”

30 MOVEMENT PREPARATION STEP 3: Active/Dynamic Warm-up –The athlete can now begin to increase core temperature with more dynamic movements such as various runs, mobility and strength drills, activation exercises, and dynamic flexibility exercises. –Prehab exercises and pillar stability/strength can be part of the movement prep phase also.

31 MOV’T PREP - Mobility Power is dependant on three things: –Stability –Mobility - how well a joint moves –Strength Without mobility, we get dysfunction. –With dysfunction, we get pain. Pain never precedes dysfunction! –Problem occurs when mobility is lost in the right areas and gained in the wrong areas. –Pain usually occurs where there is hyper-mobility.

32 MOV’T PREP - Mobility Mobility vs Flexibility: –Lack of mobility causes a development of relative flexibility and increased stiffness. Mobility vs Stability: –The body must be stable! When the body is not stable, we compensate with improper movement patterns and hyper-mobility in areas that need to be stable. Result is tightness and pain. –You are a stacked pile of joints with alternating functions and needs. Joint dysfunction will effect the joint above or below (compensatory movement).

33 MOV’T PREP - Mobility & Stability JOINTPRIMARY NEEDDYSFUNTION AnkleMobility Knee/back pain KneeStabilityLigmts/tendons HipMobilityBack/knee pain L-SpineStabilityStiffness/Disc T-SpineMobilityC-Spine pain Scapulo-TStabilityStiffness Gleno-HumMobilityBursitis/RC

34 PREHABILITATION A Proactive approach to protecting yourself from injury or correcting faulty biomechanics through specific activation or isolation exercises designed to innervate weak or inactive muscles. Two syndromes you must know: –Upper Crossed Syndrome (UCS) –Lower Crossed Syndrome (LCS)

35 PREHAB - UCS Identifying UCS: –Anteriorly shifted shoulders –Increased kyphotic curve. –Anteriorly rotated arms. –Palms face towards rear as apposed to sides. Characteristics of UCS: –Hypertonic: pectoralis major and minor, internal rotators (subscapularis, latissimus dorsi). –Hypotonic: middle and lower trapezius, rhomboids, thoracic spinal erectors, external rotators (infraspinatus, terres minor),

36 PREHAB - UCS Consequences of UCS: –Faulty glenohumeral joint alignment –Shoulder impingement –Subacromial bursitis –Weakness due to imbalance –Numbness and tingling –Upper back pain –Decreased performance (sore shoulder) –Headaches –Neck aches/pain

37 PREHAB - LCS Identifying LCS: –Increased lumbar lordosis (hyperlordosis) –Protruding abdomen Characteristics of LCS: –Hypertonic: lumbar erectors, hip flexors –Hypotonic: abdominals, gluteals.

38 PREHAB - LCS Consequences of LCS: –Lower back pain –Hip pain –Knee pain –Numbness and tingling –Decreased performance –Grumpiness

39 PREHAB - UCS and LCS Treatment of UCS: –Practice perfect posture (Brugger’s postural relief position). –Stretch pectorals, posterior and lateral neck, internal rotators. –Strengthen neck flexors, scapular retractors, middle and lower trapezius, external rotators. Treatment of LCS: –Stretch hip flexors and lower back. –Strengthen abdominals and glutes. –Avoid prolonged sitting (take breaks).

40 PILLAR TRAINING Core stability: “the ability to create extremity movement without compensatory movement of spine or pelvis.” Pillar strength: “the ability to produce and transmit force from the ground without energy leaks at the hips, spine or scapulo-thoracic joints.” An energy leak is a point at which energy is lost during the transfer of force from the ground as a result of the bodies’ inability to stabilize a joint.

41 PILLAR TRAINING Training the deep abdominal muscles –“Drawing in” - the action of bringing the rectus abdominus toward the spinal column by contracting the transversus abdominus and internal oblique muscles. –“Bracing” - the technique that involves the simulanteous co-activation of the transversus abdominus, internal and external obliques, and rectus abdominus. –Training the deep abdominal muscles play a key role in the stability of the lumbar spine and is vital to strength training and remaining healthy. rectus abdominus cannot produce or prevent rotation.

42 PILLAR TRAINING Stabilize –Athletes must first learn to stabilize the pillar prior to producing force via rotation, flexion or extension. Train stability prior to motion (‘anti-rotators’). –‘local’ muscles vs ‘global’ muscles ‘local stabilizers’ fire/activate at very low percentages of maximal force and therefore must be trained with low loads. Otherwise ‘global’ muscles take over and ‘local’ muscles become weak and/or neurologically inactive. –Inability to stabilize on one leg is hip dysfunction related to improper firing of gluteas medius (not ‘turned on’ neurologically or too weak). As a result, support structures of the knee are forced to produce stability = pain.

43 PILLAR TRAINING Dissociate –Athletes must learn to move through the appropriate areas (ie. from the hips, not from the lumbar spine). Most athletes with lower back pain or hamstring strains have poor hip and/or lumbo-pelvic mechanics and as a result must flex or extend the lumbar spine to make up for the movement unavailable through the hips. Integrate –Athletes must then learn how to integrate these different areas and joint-needs into functional movement patterns. Movement Integrated Training!

44 PILLAR TRAINING What does this all mean for athletes? –Early strength gains are more neural than contractile. Therefore, learn to stabilize, activate and mobilize the appropriate areas in the Movement Preparation, Prehabilitation, and Pillar Training phases of the workout, prior to more integrated and contractile movements. Athletes must be able to set core and fire glutes!

45 PILLAR TRAINING Glute activation (or lack thereof) may be the root of many evils: Low back pain relates strongly to poor glute max activation (lumbar compensation). Hamstring strains also related to poor glute max activation (synergistic dominance/excessive demands). Anterior hip pain associated with poor glute max activation (hamstring hip extensor biomechanics). Anterior knee pain associated with poor glute medius strength or activation. “Knees don’t usually go bad, hips fail to properly control knees.” –Glute activation should be performed in the Movement Preparation phase of every workout.

46 PILLAR TRAINING Main components of Pillar Training: –Glute activation exercises –Core stabilization exercises (planks & bridges) –Scapulo-Thoracic stabilization –Quadriped progressions (all-fours) –Supine progressions (lying face-up on back) –Core strength exercises (flexion, rotation, ext.) Athletes must be able to stabilize against rotary forces before training for rotary power.

47 POWER TRAINING Training for power is a choice between 3 options: –Body weight training (plyometrics, agility etc.). –Medicine ball training. –Resisted training (Olympic lifts). No one tool gets all the jobs done and no one tool is perfect for every job. Remember the purpose: to develop explosive concentric contractions and to facilitate/improve eccentric to concentric switching (neurological).

48 POWER TRAINING Plyometric Training –Plyos are exercises designed to improve the ability to switch from eccentric to concentric muscle action. –The purpose is to train the nervous system…eventually. –The initial and more important purpose is the develop the eccentric strength necessary to perform ‘true’ plyos. –True plyometric exercise needs to be preceded by a program of jump training for injury prevention.

49 POWER TRAINING Plyometric Training –Good plyos are quiet plyos. Athletes should be seen and not heard. –Perform stabilization and gravity reduced eccentric strength initially. Jump, hop, and bound onto box in multiple planes. –Progress to increased gravity eccentric strength. –Introduce elastic component with multiple jumps, bounds, and hops (ie. ‘true’ plyos).

50 POWER TRAINING Olympic lifting –It’s not about the sport of Olympic lifting, it’s about power for sport! –If you can’t perform the lifts with excellent technique, do not perform these lifts! You can get your high-velocity hip extension training from plyos or medicine ball training. –Olympic lifting is very effective when done correctly. Don’t worry about weight, worry about technique.

51 POWER TRAINING Olympic lifting –Perform only ‘hang’ lifts (bar above knees). Eliminates great deal of lower back stress. –It is easier to snatch than it is to clean. Use 1-arm DB hang snatch initially. –Great unilateral shoulder stability and pillar stability. Progress to BB hang snatch but use narrow grip. –Narrow grip lessens stress on shoulder joint. –BB Jump Squats are a good alternative to Olympic lifts while the athlete works on perfecting technique.

52 STRENGTH TRAINING Athletes must be able to BW Squats before adding external load (ie. walk before run). Assessment –Overhead reaching squat to parallel with toes pointing forward. –Inability = Deficient in ankle or hip mobility or hamstring flexibility.

53 STRENGTH TRAINING Learning to Squat Recruit the glutes (use theraband around knees). Chest up, shoulders back, upper and lower back arched and tight, feet shoulder width apart or slightly wider. Squat with fully inflated lungs to brace the upper and lower back. Concentrate on sitting back with the body weight on the heels. Descend slowly until the tops of the thighs are parallel to the floor (toes, knees, and shoulders will be lined up vertically). Push the knees laterally over the toes (against theraband). Ascend driving upward with the chest out bringing the hips up and forward while squeezing the glutes! Exhale slowly with hissing sound as if puncturing a tire.

54 STRENGTH TRAINING Front squats are safer than back squats. –Keeps torso upright, decreasing torque that causes problems with the SI joint. –Athletes use lighter (more appropriate) weight. –Greater stress on knee extensors allowing athletes to perform hip extension exercises the following day. –Athletes have a tough time front squatting poorly. –Develop shoulder flexibility using clean grip.

55 STRENGTH TRAINING Developing Single-leg Strength –Single-leg strength is the most important quality in performance training! The actions of the pelvic stabilizers are different in a single-leg stance than in a double-leg stance. Single-leg exercises force the gluteus medius, quadratus lumborum, and adductor muscles to act as stabilizers and neutralizers which are critical in sport skills.

56 REGENERATION Accelerating Training Adaptation –Foundational Nutrition –Optimize nutrient delivery and waste removal –Pre/Post-workout nutrition/supplementation –Hydration and electrolyte balance –Active recovery methods –Foam roll massage –Restore and maintain tissue quality –Soft tissue massage (foam roll, lacrosse ball, manual etc) –Stretching techniques –Replenish Psychological Resources –Rest/sleep/mindset strategies (naps, meditation, yoga, parties)

57 REGENERATION Active Recovery –Post/Inter-session, non-training days, and active rest phases. Light, low impact exercise Games not related to sport Pool –Mobility, light movement –Decreases joint compressive forces –Pumping/flushing effect of hydrostatic pressure

58 REGENERATION Restoring and maintaining tissue structure –Massage –Increase blood and lymphatic flow –Flush/general relaxation –Release tight tissue/decrease tissue density –Stretching –Lengthen tight muscles –Increase efficiency and aid alignment –Types »Dynamic/Mobility (Pre-Workout) »Active/Isolated (Pre/Post-Workout) »Contract/Relex (Pre/Post-Workout) »Static (Post-Workout)

59 REGENERATION Hydro/Cryo-Therapy –Cold Plunge (ice bath) –Ice –Hot Bath/Whirlpool –Hot/Cold Contrast –Sauna/Steam Room –Mineral Salt Bath

60 REGENERATION Regeneration Daily Plan –Active Rest (aerobic activity, game, swimming) –Prehab Circuit –Self-massage (total body) –Self-stretch (total body) –Post-workout supplementation –Hydro/Cryo-Therapy –Scheduled Manual Massage/Physio/Chiro

61 REGENERATION State Modulation (High Intensity) Focused Intensity ATTENTION (Broad Focus) (Narrow Focus) Surrender/Restore ENERGY (Low Intensity) Habitual Range

62 FINAL THOUGHTS Top 5 Training Recommendations: ① Recover from training – massage, stretch, ice, nutrition/supplementation, rest/sleep. ② Pillar Stability – core, hips, shoulder blades (“spare the spine”). ③ Develop single-leg strength/stability – hip mobility (squat variations, lunge variations, hip extension) ④ Address weak links (referral?) ⑤ Monitor Volume – jumps, swings, extra-curricular

63 FINAL THOUGHTS Top 5 Product Recommendations: ① Foam Roller – Travel Roller, Half foam roller etc. ② Lacrosse ball ③ Thera-band/Resist-a-band or tubing ④ Skipping Rope ⑤ Proper footwear – new each season?

64 FINAL THOUGHTS Top 5 Supplement Recommendations ① Electrolyte drink (E-Load; V-8 Juice) ② Whey Protein (Pre and Post-workout) ③ Multi-vitamin/mineral ④ Elevate Me! Nutritional Bars ⑤ Fish-oil and/or ground flax seed (Omega-3)

65 FINAL THOUGHTS Top 5 Resources for Coaches and athletes: ① ② ③ The Athletic Body in Balance by Gray Cook ④ Ultimate Back Fitness and Performance by Dr. Stuart McGill ⑤ (; 403-560-3851)

66 FINAL THOUGHTS “Our chief want in life is for someone to make us do what we can.” »Ralph Waldo Emerson –“Continuous improvement is better than delayed perfection.” »Mark Twain –“We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence then, is not an act, but a habit.” »Aristotle

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