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1750-1914: The Modern Era Changes in Patterns of World Trade Changes in Patterns of World Trade Changes in Global Commerce, Communications, and Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "1750-1914: The Modern Era Changes in Patterns of World Trade Changes in Patterns of World Trade Changes in Global Commerce, Communications, and Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 1750-1914: The Modern Era Changes in Patterns of World Trade Changes in Patterns of World Trade Changes in Global Commerce, Communications, and Technology Changes in Global Commerce, Communications, and Technology Industrial RevolutionIndustrial Revolution Impact on different societies Impact on different societies Commonalities, Causes, Effects Commonalities, Causes, Effects Relationship of Industrial and Scientific Development Relationship of Industrial and Scientific Development

2 Industrial Revolution Began mid-18 th century in Britain Began mid-18 th century in Britain Spread through other parts of Europe, Asia, and the United States later. Spread through other parts of Europe, Asia, and the United States later. Enclosure movement  farm productivity increases  less people needed to farm  movement to cities Enclosure movement  farm productivity increases  less people needed to farm  movement to cities

3 New Technology Shift from domestic system to industrial system. Shift from domestic system to industrial system. 1733 – Flying Shuttle - Weaving 1733 – Flying Shuttle - Weaving 1764 – Spinning Jenny – Spin Thread 1764 – Spinning Jenny – Spin Thread 1793 – Cotton Gin 1793 – Cotton Gin 1769 – Steam Engine 1769 – Steam Engine 1807 – Steamship 1807 – Steamship 1820’s – Steam-powered locomotive  steam powered by coal  Britain has a huge coal supply  industrialize quickly 1820’s – Steam-powered locomotive  steam powered by coal  Britain has a huge coal supply  industrialize quickly

4 New Technology Telegraph – 1837 Telegraph – 1837 Telephone – 1876 Telephone – 1876 Lightbulb - 1879 Lightbulb - 1879 Radio – 1890’s Radio – 1890’s Airplane - 1903 Airplane - 1903

5 Factory System Interchangeable Parts Interchangeable Parts Assembly Line Assembly Line Thousands of workers Thousands of workers UnderpaidUnderpaid Poor conditionsPoor conditions Long hours – 16 hour work daysLong hours – 16 hour work days Child laborChild labor

6 Capitalism vs. Communism Free Market (Capitalism) Free Market (Capitalism) Adam Smith – The Wealth of NationsAdam Smith – The Wealth of Nations Laissez – FaireLaissez – Faire Private ownership of the Factors of ProductionPrivate ownership of the Factors of Production

7 Capitalism vs. Communism Communism Communism Karl Marx – 1848 – Communist ManifestoKarl Marx – 1848 – Communist Manifesto History is a class struggleHistory is a class struggle Exploitation of the working class for the benefit of the wealthyExploitation of the working class for the benefit of the wealthy Advocates creating a classless societyAdvocates creating a classless society No private ownershipNo private ownership

8 New Imperialism Industrial Revolution led to a search for natural resources and raw materials Industrial Revolution led to a search for natural resources and raw materials 1800 and 1900’s 1800 and 1900’s Focus on colonization of Africa and Asia Focus on colonization of Africa and Asia Use of new technology (military) to take over territory Use of new technology (military) to take over territory

9 New Imperialism Social Darwinism Social Darwinism “Survival of the Fittest”“Survival of the Fittest” Britain most powerful nation at this time  natural for them to be taking over territoryBritain most powerful nation at this time  natural for them to be taking over territory White Man’s Burden – moral obligation to “civilize” non-EuropeansWhite Man’s Burden – moral obligation to “civilize” non-Europeans Spread Chrisianity, style of dress, law codes, etc. Spread Chrisianity, style of dress, law codes, etc.

10 New Imperialism - India Search for tea, silk, salt, cotton Search for tea, silk, salt, cotton British vs. French for control of India British vs. French for control of India British begin to take over territory from the French in 1750’s British begin to take over territory from the French in 1750’s British East India Company British East India Company 1857 – Sepoy Mutiny 1857 – Sepoy Mutiny Spread of Christianity among upper classes Spread of Christianity among upper classes Railroads, canals, urbanization, Western education Railroads, canals, urbanization, Western education 1885 – Indian National Congress 1885 – Indian National Congress

11 New Imperialism - China Opium War 1839 -1842 – British bring Opium from India to China Opium War 1839 -1842 – British bring Opium from India to China Treaty of Nanjing – Britain granted trade rights with the Chinese Treaty of Nanjing – Britain granted trade rights with the Chinese Internal rebellions – White Lotus – Buddhists upset with taxes, corruption Internal rebellions – White Lotus – Buddhists upset with taxes, corruption Taiping Rebellion – 1850’s Taiping Rebellion – 1850’s 1860’s – Self-strengthening movement 1860’s – Self-strengthening movement Sino-Japanese War – 1894-1895 Sino-Japanese War – 1894-1895 Spheres of Influence Spheres of Influence Boxer Rebellion - 1898 – 1901 – Attempt to remove foreign influence Boxer Rebellion - 1898 – 1901 – Attempt to remove foreign influence Decline of the Manchu Dynasty – 1911 official end, Sun Yat-Sen Decline of the Manchu Dynasty – 1911 official end, Sun Yat-Sen Established Chinese Republic Established Chinese Republic

12 New Imperialism - Japan Tokugawa Shogunate – Isolation Tokugawa Shogunate – Isolation 1853 – Matthew Perry – United States – arrived on steamboat 1853 – Matthew Perry – United States – arrived on steamboat 1854 – Treaty of Kanagawa – West wins trading rights 1854 – Treaty of Kanagawa – West wins trading rights Revolts led by samurai against emperor who allowed the treatyRevolts led by samurai against emperor who allowed the treaty Emperor Meiji 1868Emperor Meiji 1868

13 New Imperialism – Meiji Restoration 1868-1912 1868-1912 Japanese Westernization Japanese Westernization 1870’s – railroads, steamships 1870’s – railroads, steamships Universal military service – abolished samurai class Universal military service – abolished samurai class Western style government Western style government 1890’s – increased military power 1890’s – increased military power 1894-1895 – Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895 – Sino-Japanese War 1904-1905 – Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905 – Russo-Japanese War

14 New Imperialism - Africa 1807-1820 – most European nations end the slave trade 1807-1820 – most European nations end the slave trade South Africa South Africa Gold and Diamonds – mid 1800’sGold and Diamonds – mid 1800’s 1795 – British take over South Africa  Boer Great Trek1795 – British take over South Africa  Boer Great Trek Boer War 1899-1902 – British complete control of South AfricaBoer War 1899-1902 – British complete control of South Africa 1910 – constitution – some self-rule1910 – constitution – some self-rule 1912 – African National Congress1912 – African National Congress

15 New Imperialism - Egypt Weak Ottoman control by 1800’s Weak Ottoman control by 1800’s Muhammad Ali Muhammad Ali Defeated French (Napoleon)Defeated French (Napoleon) Gained control of Egypt 1805Gained control of Egypt 1805 IndustrializationIndustrialization Suez Canal – 1869 – controlled by British in 1882Suez Canal – 1869 – controlled by British in 1882

16 New Imperialism – Berlin Conference 1884-1885 1884-1885 Set up rules for colonization rights and boundaries Set up rules for colonization rights and boundaries Within 30 years, almost the entire African continent was colonized Within 30 years, almost the entire African continent was colonized Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal, BelgiumBritain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Belgium Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent until 1914Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent until 1914 Add infrastructure but remove natural resourcesAdd infrastructure but remove natural resources Christianity, Western educationChristianity, Western education

17 Age of Revolutions American Revolution – 1775-1783 American Revolution – 1775-1783 British taxation on American colonies increased as a result of wars with the French British taxation on American colonies increased as a result of wars with the French Stamp ActStamp Act Tea Act  Boston Tea PartyTea Act  Boston Tea Party “No Taxation without Representation”“No Taxation without Representation”

18 Age of Revolutions Thomas Paine Thomas Paine Common SenseCommon Sense Urged separation from BritainUrged separation from Britain Advocated natural rights  LockeAdvocated natural rights  Locke Declaration of IndependenceDeclaration of Independence U.S. ConstitutionU.S. Constitution

19 Age of Revolutions French Revolution – 1789-1799 French Revolution – 1789-1799 Louis XVI (16 th ) ruled as absolute monarch Louis XVI (16 th ) ruled as absolute monarch Storm the Bastille July 1789 – start of revolution Storm the Bastille July 1789 – start of revolution Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen – August 1789 Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen – August 1789 Reign of Terror – Robespierre Reign of Terror – Robespierre Napoleon – 1799 Napoleon – 1799

20 Age of Revolutions Napoleon Napoleon Reforms in agriculture, infrastructure, educationReforms in agriculture, infrastructure, education Napoleonic Code - 1804 – equality of French citizens (men)Napoleonic Code - 1804 – equality of French citizens (men) Expansion of French empire to include – Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, part of ItalyExpansion of French empire to include – Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, part of Italy 1812 – invasion of Russia – failed1812 – invasion of Russia – failed Napoleon forced into exileNapoleon forced into exile

21 Congress of Vienna 1815 1815 Led by Prince von Metternich of AustriaLed by Prince von Metternich of Austria French borders cut back to pre- NapoleonFrench borders cut back to pre- Napoleon Restoration of old monarchsRestoration of old monarchs Borders restoredBorders restored

22 Age of Revolutions Haiti Haiti First successful Latin American revoltFirst successful Latin American revolt French island colony – exported coffee, sugar, cocoa to EuropeFrench island colony – exported coffee, sugar, cocoa to Europe Plantation society – slave basedPlantation society – slave based 1800, 90% of population were slaves1800, 90% of population were slaves 1801 – Toussaint L’Ouverture – led slave revolt1801 – Toussaint L’Ouverture – led slave revolt 1804 – Haiti free republic1804 – Haiti free republic

23 Age of Revolutions Latin America Latin America Venezuela – Simon Bolivar – declared independence from Spain in 1811Venezuela – Simon Bolivar – declared independence from Spain in 1811 Gran Colombia – Columbia, Ecuador, VenezuelaGran Colombia – Columbia, Ecuador, Venezuela Argentina – Jose de San Martin – independence from Spain 1814Argentina – Jose de San Martin – independence from Spain 1814 Brazil – independence from Portugal – 1820’sBrazil – independence from Portugal – 1820’s Mexico – 1810 – Miguel Hidalgo – revolt against Spanish rule – 1821 indepencenceMexico – 1810 – Miguel Hidalgo – revolt against Spanish rule – 1821 indepencence

24 Age of Revolutions Impact of revolutions Impact of revolutions Slavery still existed in most areas of Latin America (and the U.S.)Slavery still existed in most areas of Latin America (and the U.S.) Plantation system dominatedPlantation system dominated Catholic Church remained powerful – large landownerCatholic Church remained powerful – large landowner Latin American countries still dependent on European economyLatin American countries still dependent on European economy Latin American revolutions did not result in many changes for most of the populationLatin American revolutions did not result in many changes for most of the population

25 Unification Movements Italy Italy Broken into various kingdomsBroken into various kingdoms Count Camillo Cavour – Prime Minister  increased nationalismCount Camillo Cavour – Prime Minister  increased nationalism Giuseppe Garibaldi – volunteer army that drove Spain from Italy in 1860Giuseppe Garibaldi – volunteer army that drove Spain from Italy in 1860 1861 – most of Italy unified1861 – most of Italy unified

26 Unification Movements Germany Germany Regional governmentsRegional governments Sought to combine territory to compete with emerging Western European powersSought to combine territory to compete with emerging Western European powers Otto von Bismarck – prime minister – “Blood and Iron”Otto von Bismarck – prime minister – “Blood and Iron” 1871 – Germany unified1871 – Germany unified

27 Russia 1860’s – Emancipation of the Serfs (in name, but not reality) 1860’s – Emancipation of the Serfs (in name, but not reality) Russification – citizens expected to learn Russian language and convert to Russian Orthodoxy – failure to comply led to persecution (Jews) Russification – citizens expected to learn Russian language and convert to Russian Orthodoxy – failure to comply led to persecution (Jews) 1905 – Bloody Sunday 1905 – Bloody Sunday Stolypin Reforms – legislative issues – created Duma Stolypin Reforms – legislative issues – created Duma

28 Ottoman Empire Decline begins in 16 th century (Battle of Lepanto) Decline begins in 16 th century (Battle of Lepanto) 17 th and 18 th centuries fight for control of Balkans, Black Sea vs. Russians (seeking warm water ports) 17 th and 18 th centuries fight for control of Balkans, Black Sea vs. Russians (seeking warm water ports) Greece, Egypt, Arabia lead successful independence movements against Ottoman control – concerns Britain and France – threat of Russian takeover of Ottoman territory Greece, Egypt, Arabia lead successful independence movements against Ottoman control – concerns Britain and France – threat of Russian takeover of Ottoman territory Crimean War – Britain, France, Ottoman vs. Russia - 1853 Crimean War – Britain, France, Ottoman vs. Russia - 1853

29 Mass Leisure Culture Literature Literature Newspapers Newspapers Music Music Amusement parks Amusement parks Professional sports Professional sports Department stores Department stores Arts – romanticism, impressionsism Arts – romanticism, impressionsism

30 Role of Women Low point for women’s rights Low point for women’s rights Education, wages continued to be inaccessible to most womenEducation, wages continued to be inaccessible to most women Feminist MovementFeminist Movement Seneca Falls Convention – 1848 Seneca Falls Convention – 1848 Suffrage Movements Suffrage Movements

31 Demographic and Environmental Changes Migrations Migrations End of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade End of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade New Birthrate Patterns New Birthrate Patterns Food Supply Food Supply Scientific Achievements Scientific Achievements New medical proceduresNew medical procedures Use of medicineUse of medicine

32 Changes in Social and Gender Structure Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution Commercial and Demographic Developments Commercial and Demographic Developments Emancipation of Serfs/Slaves Emancipation of Serfs/Slaves Ideas about Gender Ideas about Gender New forms of labor systems New forms of labor systems

33 Political Revolutions and Independence Movements United States and Latin American Independence Movements United States and Latin American Independence Movements French, Mexican, Haitian, Chinese Revolutions French, Mexican, Haitian, Chinese Revolutions Rise of nationalism, nation-states, and reform movements Rise of nationalism, nation-states, and reform movements Rise of democracy and its limitations Rise of democracy and its limitations Reform, women, racismReform, women, racism

34 Rise of Western Dominance Political, Social, Economic, Military, Cultural and Artistic influence of West Political, Social, Economic, Military, Cultural and Artistic influence of West Imperialism, Colonialism Imperialism, Colonialism Cultural and Political Reactions to domination Cultural and Political Reactions to domination Rise of Nationalism Rise of Nationalism

35 Patterns of Cultural and Artistic Interactions Between Societies African/Asian influences on European Art African/Asian influences on European Art Cultural policies of Meiji Japan Cultural policies of Meiji Japan

36 Diverse Interpretations What are the causes and effects of the emancipation of serfs and slaves? What are the causes and effects of the emancipation of serfs and slaves? What are the debates regarding women’s roles in this time period? How do they differ from society to society? What are the debates regarding women’s roles in this time period? How do they differ from society to society? What are the debates over the causes of European/British technological innovation versus development in Asia/China? What are the debates over the causes of European/British technological innovation versus development in Asia/China?

37 Compare and Contrast Causes and early phases of industrialization in Great Britain and Japan Causes and early phases of industrialization in Great Britain and Japan Haitian and French Revolutions Haitian and French Revolutions Reaction to foreign interference in Ottoman Empire, China, India, Southeast Asia, and Japan Reaction to foreign interference in Ottoman Empire, China, India, Southeast Asia, and Japan Chinese and Japanese Nationalism, Egyptian and Italian Nationalism, Indian Congress Movement Chinese and Japanese Nationalism, Egyptian and Italian Nationalism, Indian Congress Movement Forms of Western Intervention in Latin America, Africa, and Southeast Asia Forms of Western Intervention in Latin America, Africa, and Southeast Asia The roles and conditions of elite women in Latin America and Western Europe pre-1850 The roles and conditions of elite women in Latin America and Western Europe pre-1850


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