The Later Middle Ages Europe: Rule, Religion, and Conflict
Popes and Kings The Big Idea Popes and kings dominated European society in the Middle Ages. 7.6.4
Popes and Kings In the early Middle Ages, nobles and knights held power. However, as time passed, power shifted to popes and kings.
The Power of the Popes Main Idea 1: Popes and kings ruled Europe as spiritual and political leaders
The Power of the Popes The pope was the head of the Christian church in western Europe. The pope had great power because so many people belonged to the church. People saw the pope as God’s representative on Earth The Vatican in Rome, home to the Pope.
4. Excommunication means that … C. a king in the Holy Roman Empire has been chosen by a pope. D. king’s could not appoint a bishop. A. you have had a fight with the pope. B. you have been cast out from the church.
5. Which statement is not true about kings? C. England, France, & The Holy Roman Empire had kings for rulers. D. Most Kings inherited the throne from their fathers. A. The King of the Holy Roman Empire was approved by the Pope. B. Kings had less power than nobles in the later middle ages.
Popes Main Idea 2: Some popes fought for power, leading to a permanent split within the church.
Pope Leo The bishop of Constantinople, Michael I Cerularius Pope Leo IX Pope Leo IX believed that all Christians should answer to the pope, and that the pope should be the leader of the whole Christian church. The bishop of Constantinople disagreed with Pope Leo and wouldn’t recognize his authority …so Pope Leo excommunicated him. Respect my authority.
Pope Leo This decision created a permanent split in the church. The Eastern Orthodox Church was formed by Christians who agreed with the bishop and not the pope. The rest of the church became known as the Roman Catholic Church. The pope became one of the most powerful figures in western Europe.
A Split in the Christian ChurchChristianity Followers of Jesus Roman Catholic Church Eastern Orthodox Church Most of Europe Some followers in the Byzantine Empire area
Power Struggle Main Idea 3 As popes continued to try to increase their power, they came into conflict with kings.
Power Struggle Pope Gregory VII came to power in Rome. The pope disapproved of a bishop chosen by the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV. Henry IV a bishop Pope Gregory VII
Power Struggle Henry became angry and tried to have the pope removed however, the pope excommunicated Henry IV. Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV You want trouble? You’re gonna get trouble. Then you’re gonna get trouble. Oh, that’s good, that’s good, cuz I want trouble. Oh yeah, lots of trouble. For you. No, youre gonna get trouble. Oh, I want trouble alright. Then were agreed. There’ll be trouble. Trouble it is. DOH! Pope Gregory
Power Struggle Henry had to beg the pope for forgiveness to get back into the church. This incident made the pope more powerful than the emperor at that time. Victory is mine!
6. Many Eastern Europeans did not consider the Pope the head of the Christian Church? B. False A. True
7. What was the result of Pope Leo’s excommunication of a Constantinople bishop? B. Roman Catholics fought a war against the Eastern Orthodox Church. C. Leo was removed as the Pope. D. A split was caused in the Christian Church. A. Pope Leo removed the king of the Holy Roman Empire.
8. Pope Gregory's excommunication of King Henry … B. highlighted the power of the Holy Roman Emperor over the Church. C. showed how weak the Catholic church had become. D. highlighted the power of the pope in the Middle Ages. A. caused a split in the church.
9. Popes did not get into disputes with the Kings of the Holy Roman Empire, only the Kings of other countries. A. True B. False - King Henry was the King of the Holy Roman Empire