HYDROGEN BONDS Extraordinary Properties that are a result of hydrogen bonds: 1.Adhesion 2.Cohesion 3.Capillary action 4.Surface tension 5.Holds heat to regulate temperature (High heat capacity) 6.Less dense as a solid than a liquid 7.Versatile solvent
TERMS cohesion = water attracted to other water molecules because of polar properties adhesion = water attracted to other materials surface tension = water is pulled together creating the smallest surface area possible Cohesion, Adhesion and Surface Tension
Organisms Depend on Capillary Action Because water has both adhesive and cohesive properties, capillary action is present. ANIMATION Capillary Action = water’s adhesive property is the cause of capillary action. Water is attracted to some other material and then through cohesion, other water molecules move too as a result of the original adhesion. Ex: Think water in a straw Ex: Water moves through trees this way
Can we break surface tension? DEMO!! What is being broken if we can break it? Hydrogen Bonds ANIMATION
High Specific Heat of WATER ANIMATION What trends did you notice? What does this short animation tell us about water’s HSH?
Three-fourths of the earth is covered by water. The water serves as a large heat sink responsible for: Prevention of temperature fluctuations that are outside the range suitable for life. Coastal areas having a mild climate A stable marine environment It takes much more energy to raise the temperature of water compared to other solvents because hydrogen bonds hold the water molecules together! High Specific Heat is the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost to change its temperature by 1 o C.
Evaporative Cooling The cooling of a surface occurs when the liquid evaporates This is responsible for: –Moderating earth’s climate –Stabilizes temperature in aquatic ecosystems –Preventing organisms from overheating
Density of Water The density of water: 1.Prevents water from freezing from the bottom up. 2.Ice forms on the surface first—the freezing of the water releases heat to the water below creating insulation. 3.Makes transition between season less abrupt.
Water is the solvent of Life! Solute – substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution Solvent – fluid that dissolves solutes Example: Ice Tea – water is the solvent and tea and sugar the solutes Universal Solvent