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Vibrations and Waves Parts and Properties of Waves Sine and Cosine Functions

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X - axis (Distance = d) d 0 +1 Y - axis (height) Amplitude (A) Wavelength (λ) λ A A

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Definitions: Equilibrium Line: Is the center line and could be either a distance (d) plot or a time (t) plot. Amplitude (A): Is the height of the wave, a distance from the equilibrium line to the highest point (Crest) or lowest point (Trough). Wavelength (λ): Is the length of the wave or the distance traveled by the wave in one cycle or distance crest-to-crest or trough-to-trough.

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Perfect Wave – Sine Function X - axis (time - t) time 0 +1 Y - axis (height) Amplitude (A) 0.5 11.52 (sec) Period (T) = 2 sec Frequency ( f ) A A

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Definitions: Period (T) : Is the time taken by the wave to complete one vibration or cycle. Frequency (f): Is the number of vibrations or cycles per second. Unit: cycles/second=Hertz (Hz) Wave Speed (v): Is how fast the wave travels. v = f λ

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Wave Speed 100300 d (m) If the wave takes 1.2 seconds to complete one cycle, then wave speed is

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Types of Waves Particles of the medium vibrate at right angles to the path of the wave. Light waves and other electromagnetic waves are transverse. Particles of the medium vibrate parallel (along) the path of the wave. Sound waves are longitudinal waves. Transverse Waves Longitudinal Waves

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Transverse Wave Demo

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Example: Electromagnetic Waves

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Longitudinal Wave Demo

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Example: Sound Waves

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Seismic Waves

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