Presentation on theme: "Taxonomy: Classification of Organisms Meridith McConnell."— Presentation transcript:
Taxonomy: Classification of Organisms Meridith McConnell
How are vehicles classified? Retrieved November 6, 2012 from: http://o.aolcdn.com/commerce/images/mercedes_11eclasscoupe_angularfront_Regular.jpg Retrieved November 6, 2012 from: http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTIg1DsLISn7HK76i5p5CtpFIEddog5eflUh_Tu0SMmUyE9Fr7bPlRLXHHM Retrieved November 6, 2012 from: http://images.dealer.com/autodata/us/320/color/2012/USC20TOC251A0/8T7.jpg Retrieved November 6, 2012 from: http://paris-airport-shuttle.discoverfrance.net/Images/Fleet/VW_Transporter/minivan_turq_3q_view-lg.jpg Retrieved November 6, 2012 from: http://www.kimballstock.com/pix/AUT/14/AUT-14-IZ0133-01P.JPG Retrieved November 6, 2012 from: http://www.kucuu.com/thumb/918cb7f54bd9fe7c9e8cc31c74dadf68.jpg
Just as cars are classified based on their brand, make, model, and color; plants and animals are classified into different categories based on similarities of structure and evolutionary history. Brand: Chevrolet Make: Silverado Model: 2500hd Color: White Retrieved November 6, 2012 from: http://www.kimballstock.com/pix/AUT/14/AUT-14-IZ0133-01P.JPG
What is Taxonomy? A systematic method of classifying plants and animals. Classification of organisms based on degrees of similarity supposedly representing evolutionary (phylogenetic) relatedness.
Importance of Taxonomic System Taxonomy creates a vivid picture of the existing organic diversity on earth. Taxonomy provides information that enables scientists to make a reconstruction of the phylogeny of life. Taxonomy divulges numerous evolutionary phenomena. Taxonomy supplies classifications which lead to explain branches of biology and paleontology.
Past & Present: Organisms were first classified over 2000 years ago by the Greek philosopher, Aristotle. He grouped animals into land, water, and air dwellers. He also grouped plants into three categories. These were based on different stems. This classification system became insufficient over time as many new species were discovered. Common names were no longer effective either because these differed between different locations. (oak tree, goldfish) Biologists then developed the biological classification system to name, organize, and categorize organisms. The new classification system is now strongly based on common descent through DNA analysis rather than solely physical similarities of plants and animals.
Categories of Taxonomy Retrieved November 7, 2012 from: http://staff.slcschools.org/jsnow/Labs/Classification%20Lab/KindomtoSpecies.jpg 1. Domain 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species Domain was not originally a part of the system, but once scientists discovered that bacteria consist of two distinctly related groups, an 8 th taxonomic rank was added to the top of the hierarchy- domain.
Mnemonic Did King Philip Come Over For Great Spaghetti? =Domain =Kingdom =Phylum =Class =Order =Family =Genus =Species Retrieved November 7, 2012 from: http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcStUGGM6A4zpDe9XdIYi5YPTQrwX ChoO9OE7t1jckDACHcO3xMu Retrieved November 7, 2012 from: http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT3qsTkcIf39fQlexaQnJ91c2o7a6M oQVLkixdDJXxpg3p67mA9
Quick Knowledge Check Activity Get into groups of 2 Given notecards with a different level of taxonomy written on each one, arrange the notecards in the correct taxonomic order without using any notes or your book. Retrieved November 7, 2012 from: http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRIdzSU5XEp7u0mFMMTAv8yvNLM OVzIZjCGOx1-pz4yhli-W189
Things to Know: Classification - The process of grouping things based on their similarities Binomial nomenclature - System of naming organisms based on observable features (two names). Created by Linnaeus The 3 main characteristics used to classify organisms into domains and kingdoms are: - cell type - their ability to make food, - the number of cells in their bodies Review From Chapter on Cells: Prokaryote - Organisms whose cells lack a nucleus Eukaryote - Organisms with cells that contain a nuclei.
Domain: Consists of Archaea, Eubacteria, and Eukarya I.Archaea’s Kingdom: Archaebacteria Kingdom II.Eubacteria’s Kingdom: Eubacteria Kingdom III.Eukarya’s Kingdoms: Protista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia Kingdom
Archaebacteria Kingdom (under Archaea Domain) Consists of Organisms: Methanogens, Halophiles, Thermophiles, Psychrophiles Cell Type: Prokaryotic Characteristics: Cell Structures: Cell walls WITHOUT peptidoglycans Number of Cells: Unicellular Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or heterotroph Eubacteria Kingdom (under Eubacteria Domain) Consists of Organisms: Bacteria, Cyanobacteria(blue-green algae), Actinobacteria Cell Type: Prokaryotic Characteristics: Cell Structures: Cell walls WITH peptidoglycans Number of Cells: unicellular Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or heterotroph
Protista Kingdom (under Eukarya Domain) Organisms: Amoebae, green algae, brown algae, diatoms, euglena, slime molds Cell Type: Eukaryotic Characteristics: Cell Structures: Cell walls of CELLULOSE: some have chloroplasts Number of Cells: Most unicellular, some colonial or multicellular Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or heterotroph Fungi Kingdom (under Eukarya Domain) Organisms: Mushrooms, yeast, molds Cell Type: Eukaryotic Characteristics: Cell Structures: Cell walls of CHITIN Number of Cells: some unicellular, MOST MULTICELLULAR Mode of Nutrition: Heterotroph
Plantae Kingdom (under Eukarya Domain) Organisms: Mosses, angiosperms (flowering plants), gymnosperms, liverworts, ferns Cell Type: Eukaryotic Characteristics: Cell Structures: Cell walls with CELLULOSE; chloroplasts Number of Cells: MULTICELLULAR Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph Animalia Kingdom (under Eukarya Domain) Organisms: Mammals, amphibians, sponges, insects, worms Cell Type: Eukaryotic Characteristics: Cell Structures: NO Cell walls and NO CHLOROPLASTS Number of Cells: Multicellular Mode of Nutrition: Heterotroph
Practice Makes Perfect Check out this flashcard website on kingdoms to practice what you just learned! CLICK HERE! Retrieved on November 7, 2012 from: http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRZs9QWVoXoDVw2WfTg- egy9rh5x_iOSlt1SwoW6YyQmLtT2xAM
- Get into groups of 3. - Correctly group the following organisms together based on similarities, differences, and your new knowledge of kingdom classifications? - You may use your internet on your cell phone to look up unfamiliar organisms. ** The first team to group the organisms correctly gets a PRIZE!!!!** The List: Amoebae Chaetomium thermophile Liverworts Cholera Sponges Halophiles Giant kelp Amoebae Black mold Mushrooms E. coli Dawsonia Horses Retrieved on November 7, 2012 from: http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTcMiP5FKcjNPnr4oKjcNmNgC4VU XhYHvo5_2372jjN_diH1jxyIA
Pop Quiz *You may use your notes to help 1._______ is the process of grouping things based on their similarities. 2._______ is the scientific study of how living things are classified. _______(same word) & evolution are closely related. 3._______ is the system of naming organisms based on observable features (two names). Created by Linnaeus. 4._______ are organisms whose cells lack a nucleus. 5._______ are organisms with cells that contain a nuclei. 6.Why do biologists organize living things into groups? 7.Name the 8 levels of classification in correct order. 8.Name each of the domains into which organisms are classified. 9.What are the 3 characteristics are used to classify organisms into domains and kingdoms? Bonus: What do the levels of classification indicate about the relationship between organisms?
Grade Neighbor’s Quiz 1.Classification 2.Taxonomy, Taxonomy 3.Binomial Nomenclature 4.Prokaryotes 5.Eukaryotes 6.Biologists use classification to organize living things into groups so that organisms are easier to study. 7.Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species 8.cell type, their ability to make food, the number of cells in their bodies. 9.Eubacteria, Achaea, Eukarya (protist, fungi, plants, animals) *Bonus: The more classification levels that two organisms share, the more characteristics they have in common.