Question of the Day!  We shared a lot of examples of illogical arguments!  But how do you make a LOGICAL argument? What does your argument need? What.

Presentation on theme: "Question of the Day!  We shared a lot of examples of illogical arguments!  But how do you make a LOGICAL argument? What does your argument need? What."— Presentation transcript:

Question of the Day!  We shared a lot of examples of illogical arguments!  But how do you make a LOGICAL argument? What does your argument need? What would it sound like?

Deductive and Inductive Reasoning

Identifying Terms  Example:  All humans are mortal.  Premise 1  John Smith is human.  Premise 2  Therefore, John Smith is mortal.  Conclusion

What is Deductive Reasoning?  The conclusion validly follows from the premises  Conclusion needs to be supported by the premises  The premises need to be true in order for the conclusion to be true  If a premise is false, the conclusion is false  Most important form is the syllogism  Deductive reasoning only clarifies concepts that we already know

Inductive Reasoning  Does not aim at producing true, valid conclusions  Cannot apply terms “valid” and “invalid” to inductive reasoning  Cannot guarantee true conclusions even if the premise is true  Allows us to INFER probable and likely conclusions  Identifies cause and effect, understanding patterns  Attempts to predict the conclusion based on the premises  No guarantee the future will be like the past  Examples: analogies and statistics

Practice  Turn to page 11 on your packet and complete the questions #1-9 for practice

Syllogisms  Made up of three lines  First two are the premises  Last is the conclusion  Different types of syllogisms  Categorical syllogism  Starts with a rule or fact  Conditional syllogism  Starts with a conditional phrase  Usually “if, then” statements  If both premises are true, the conclusion must be true  An argument that is valid with true premises is sound

Practice  Turn to page 12 in your packet to read through the sample syllogisms

Practice  On the front of the note card, create one syllogism in the POSITIVE FORM and on the back, create one syllogism in the NEGATIVE FORM

Deductive and Inductive Review  On page 13 of the packet, complete the questions 1-4 for review on deciphering deductive and inductive arguments  Then complete the four syllogisms following the premises and creating a valid conclusion

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