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Section 2: Drafting the Constitution

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1 Section 2: Drafting the Constitution
Chapter 5 Section 2: Drafting the Constitution

2 Nationalists Strengthen the Government
Shay’s Rebellion – Farmers, led by Daniel Shays, fought against the high tax placed on farmers A stronger government had to be put into place to avoid abuse of power (example: too high of a tax) The problem was the states did not want the federal government to have too much control over the states

3 Call for Convention States were arguing over trade:
Taxes Navigation rights James Madison and Alexander Hamilton called a meeting with state delegates (leaders) to discuss issues of trade within states Only 5 states came at first, but 12 went to the meeting after hearing about Shay’s Rebellion

4 Convention Highlights
All states met, except Rhode Island Very hot, but windows were closed to keep the meeting confidential Outstanding leaders and Americans were there All voted to make George Washington the presiding officer

5 Conflict Leads to Compromise
Agreed the central government needs to be strengthened Decided to create a new form of government instead of revising the Articles of Confederation

6 Big States Versus Small States
Wanted representation to be fair for larger states James Madison’s Virginia Plan: Two-house legislature Membership based on state’s population Voters elect members to lower house Elected member elect upper house members

7 Big States Versus Small States continued
Virginia Plan Reactions: Small states said NO to giving more power to larger states with larger populations Small states supported William Paterson’s New Jersey Plan: One house Each state had an equal vote

8 Big States Versus Small States continued
Roger Sherman suggested the Great Compromise: 2 house Congress for both the small and big states Each state will have equal representation in the upper house, “more powerful house”, Senate House of Representatives (lower house) may have more than on representative for each state, depending on its size Citizens chose House representatives House representatives chose Senate representatives

9 Big States Versus Small States continued
The Great Compromise results: Favored this government Allowed voters to choose representatives States rights are protected, no matter what the size

10 Slavery-Related Issues
Should slaves be counted as people? Southern states wanted slaves to count because they had many slaves Northern states disagreed Three-Fifths Compromise: Three-fifths of the state’s slaves will count Congress can control trade except for slave trade

11 Creating a New Government
Has to work on dividing power between states and national government Separated the national government’s power into 3 branches (levels or parts)

12 Division of Powers Federalism – divided power between the national government and the state governments In the Constitution, national government is called delegated/enumerated powers Ex: control foreign affairs, providing national defense, controlling state trade, making money State power is called reserved powers Ex: providing and supervising education, creating marriage laws, regulating trade in a state Both governments can tax, borrow money, and make courts.

13 Separation of Powers Created 3 branches of government:
Legislative branch – makes laws Executive branch – carry out laws (make sure laws are followed) Judicial branch – interpret the law (decide if a person broke a law and give punishment) Checks and balances – President has a lot of power, but the Senate must approve the president’s decisions

14 Separation of Powers continued
Voting was an issue Communication about voting is hard Not all citizens have enough knowledge to vote Electoral college: each state choose a number of electors equal to the number of representatives in Congress This group will vote for the candidates

15 Creating the Constitution
Was created, but can be amended (changed) with amendments as needed Was sent to Congress for the states approval

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