Clause A group of words that has a subject and a verb and is used as part of a sentence.
Types of Clauses Independent – Main – expresses a complete thought-EX-I watched the Super Bowl. Subordinate – Needs help –Dependent- Can’t stand alone-After I watched the Super Bowl
Types of Sentences Sentences are classified by the number and types of clauses
Simple Sentence One independent clause Ex-I watched the super bowl.
Compound Sentence Two independent clauses joined by either a comma and a coordinating conjunction or a semicolon EX-I watched the super bowl, and I ate chips. EX-I watched the super bowl; however, I forgot the chips.
Coordinating Conjunctions F A N B O Y S-Join two independent clauses (with a comma) to form compound sentences. For And Nor But Or Yet So
Complex Sentence One independent clause and at least one subordinate clause
Adjective Clause Begins with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, that, which) Usually modifies the noun directly before it.
Adjective clauses continued Tells which one or what kind Example: The quarterback who threw the interception lost the game. (Modifies quarterback; tells which one)
Restrictive clauses A restrictive clause is necessary in order for the sentence to make sense, or is at least necessary to identify the noun. (That is, it “restricts” the noun or pronoun.) Ex: Anyone who finds the lost dog should call the humane society. (Not just “anyone” should call-only the person who has found the dog.)
Non-restrictive Clauses A non-restrictive clause add information or description, but such a clause is not necessary in order to identify the noun. Ex: Laurie, who was a good social studies student, decided to show the map to her teacher. (No restrictive clause is needed because Laurie is identified by name.)
Punctuation Notes A non-restrictive clause is set off by commas, but a restrictive clause is not.
Adverb Clause Begins with a subordinating conjunction such as after, as, because, if, since, when Describes a verb, adjective, or adverb of the independent clause.
Adverb clauses continued Answers the questions When? Where? In what way? To what extent? Under what conditions? or Why? Tells when, where, how or why something happened. Example: I turned on the TV before the Super Bowl started. (Modifies turned; tells when)
Compound-Complex Sentence Two independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause. The clauses are connected using correct punctuation.
Let’s see if you were listening… What are the five types of relative pronouns? What are the coordinating conjunctions? What type of clause is necessary in the sentence? Does it require commas? What is a compound sentence? Complex? Compound Complex? What are three subordinating conjunctions? What type of clause do they begin? What questions do adverb clauses answers?