Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Declarations in Dialogue Susan Jarratt Comparative Literature Susan Jarratt Comparative Literature.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Declarations in Dialogue Susan Jarratt Comparative Literature Susan Jarratt Comparative Literature."— Presentation transcript:

1 Declarations in Dialogue Susan Jarratt Comparative Literature Susan Jarratt Comparative Literature

2 Goals:  historical and literary content: public writing and speaking of 18thC political revolutions and 19thC social movements -- their contexts, structures, arguments, styles; key terms: genre, circulation, public sphere, intertext  practice: how to think and write rhetorically (what happens when someone speaks/writes, especially in a direct attempt to change something: structures of government, behavior, attitude)  attitude: beyond reverential indifference? the curiosity and engagement of a citizen-rhetor? the possibility of seeing yourself as a co-creator or crafter of (political) rhetoric?  historical and literary content: public writing and speaking of 18thC political revolutions and 19thC social movements -- their contexts, structures, arguments, styles; key terms: genre, circulation, public sphere, intertext  practice: how to think and write rhetorically (what happens when someone speaks/writes, especially in a direct attempt to change something: structures of government, behavior, attitude)  attitude: beyond reverential indifference? the curiosity and engagement of a citizen-rhetor? the possibility of seeing yourself as a co-creator or crafter of (political) rhetoric?

3 Interlocking texts/Intertexts  Declaration of Independence (1776)  Letters of Abigail Adams to John Adams (1771-76)  Haitian Constitution (1801), also a letter from Toussaint L’Ouverture to Napoleon Bonaparte  “Declaration of Sentiments” (1848), Elizabeth Cady Stanton, et al. - Seneca Falls Convention on the Rights of Women  Frederick Douglass, “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?” (1852 speech)  Douglass, Narrative of the Life Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. Written by Himself (1845)  Declaration of Independence (1776)  Letters of Abigail Adams to John Adams (1771-76)  Haitian Constitution (1801), also a letter from Toussaint L’Ouverture to Napoleon Bonaparte  “Declaration of Sentiments” (1848), Elizabeth Cady Stanton, et al. - Seneca Falls Convention on the Rights of Women  Frederick Douglass, “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?” (1852 speech)  Douglass, Narrative of the Life Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. Written by Himself (1845)

4 “Humans” together: forging political bonds  When? The Enlightenment, or Age of Reason (17th and 18th centuries)  Where? Europe and its colonies (America, Saint Domingue/Haiti)  From the authority of religion to secularism (Goethe’s Faust)  From religious explanations of natural events to the invention of science  The rejection of monarchy in favor of rule by citizens  New conditions for speaking and writing: a republic of letters  When? The Enlightenment, or Age of Reason (17th and 18th centuries)  Where? Europe and its colonies (America, Saint Domingue/Haiti)  From the authority of religion to secularism (Goethe’s Faust)  From religious explanations of natural events to the invention of science  The rejection of monarchy in favor of rule by citizens  New conditions for speaking and writing: a republic of letters

5 Redefinition of the human:  The Enlightenment puts forward “man’s claim to be recognized as an adult, responsible being who would would take the risk of discovery, exercise the right of unfetttered criticism, accept the loneliness of autonomy” (Peter Gay, The Enlightenment: An Interpretation, qtd. in Kerber 16).  Who will count as “man”?  The Enlightenment puts forward “man’s claim to be recognized as an adult, responsible being who would would take the risk of discovery, exercise the right of unfetttered criticism, accept the loneliness of autonomy” (Peter Gay, The Enlightenment: An Interpretation, qtd. in Kerber 16).  Who will count as “man”?

6 Our mode of analysis: multidisciplinary (Prof. Miles’ hats) with an emphasis on rhetoric Viewing changes in this period of revolution as a structural transformation: a set of interlocking changes (Habermas) --Politics: freedom, rule of law, representation (Locke) --Economy: colonies (James); capitalism; the rise of a bourgeoisie, a property-owning middle class - Faust and Margaret -- Philosophy or intellectual history (also called “theory”): changing ways of thinking about “man,” reason, experience, and government - Enlightenment thought (Arendt; Locke) --Rhetoric: an analysis of media and modes of communication - the rise of print: a shift from spectacular, iconic cultural to a world of text (Landes; Warner) Viewing changes in this period of revolution as a structural transformation: a set of interlocking changes (Habermas) --Politics: freedom, rule of law, representation (Locke) --Economy: colonies (James); capitalism; the rise of a bourgeoisie, a property-owning middle class - Faust and Margaret -- Philosophy or intellectual history (also called “theory”): changing ways of thinking about “man,” reason, experience, and government - Enlightenment thought (Arendt; Locke) --Rhetoric: an analysis of media and modes of communication - the rise of print: a shift from spectacular, iconic cultural to a world of text (Landes; Warner)

7 An 18th-century Republic of Letters  Public sphere: a space in which people read, discussed, and wrote about opinions, issues, and ideas in coffee houses, salons, and public meeting places  Characterized by “rational-critical” debate, equality and association among persons of unequal status, freedom from censorship of free expression  “Spheres” are actual spaces (salons, pubs, coffee houses, academies, debating societies), textual spaces (newspapers, books, journals, pamphlets, cartoons, broadsides), and imagined spaces: “in the bosom of so many states, the majority of them despotic... there exists a certain realm which holds sway only over the mind... that we honour with the name Republic, because it preserves a measure of independence, and because it is almost its essence to be free. It is the realm of talent and of thought” (Bayle)  Public sphere: a space in which people read, discussed, and wrote about opinions, issues, and ideas in coffee houses, salons, and public meeting places  Characterized by “rational-critical” debate, equality and association among persons of unequal status, freedom from censorship of free expression  “Spheres” are actual spaces (salons, pubs, coffee houses, academies, debating societies), textual spaces (newspapers, books, journals, pamphlets, cartoons, broadsides), and imagined spaces: “in the bosom of so many states, the majority of them despotic... there exists a certain realm which holds sway only over the mind... that we honour with the name Republic, because it preserves a measure of independence, and because it is almost its essence to be free. It is the realm of talent and of thought” (Bayle)

8  Anciet Charles Gabriel Lemonnier (French, 1743-1824): Madame Geoffrin's salon in 1755, oil on canvas, Château de Malmaison, Rueil-Malmaison, France. Painted 1812.

9 21st-century republic of letters  Daragahi, Borzou. “Tunisian news media relish new freedom.” Los Angeles Times 21 Jan. 2011: A3.

10 Some Enlightenment background-- With rhetorical consequences

11 The birth of science  Isaac Newton (1643-1727)  Principia Mathematica - classical mechanics, laws of motion on earth same as planetary  Confirming heliocentrism  Deism: a distant god designs along rationalist and universalist principles  Natural law and rationality applied to other realms The birth of science  Isaac Newton (1643-1727)  Principia Mathematica - classical mechanics, laws of motion on earth same as planetary  Confirming heliocentrism  Deism: a distant god designs along rationalist and universalist principles  Natural law and rationality applied to other realms

12 18thC POLITICS: --rejection of the divine right of kings --regime change through popular movements and violent protest: revolution --from relation of monarch/subject to nations of sovereign selves/citizens --rejection of the divine right of kings --regime change through popular movements and violent protest: revolution --from relation of monarch/subject to nations of sovereign selves/citizens

13 Louis XVI, King of France  1754-1793: Ancien regime  Absence of rule of law: lettres de cachet  beheaded during the Reign of Terror, 1793  1754-1793: Ancien regime  Absence of rule of law: lettres de cachet  beheaded during the Reign of Terror, 1793

14 Marie Antoinette Queen of France, 1755-1793 Dickens, Tale of Two Cities “It was the best of times; it was the worst of times.” Dickens, Tale of Two Cities “It was the best of times; it was the worst of times.”

15 18thC ECONOMY: vast income gaps, taxation, colonial exploitation, slavery  British colonies in America (see Declaration)  Suffering peasantry in France -  Saint-Domingue (Haiti), valuable French colony - plantations worked by African slaves (Toussaint L’Ouverture, 1743-1803, leader of slave revolt in Haiti)  British colonies in America (see Declaration)  Suffering peasantry in France -  Saint-Domingue (Haiti), valuable French colony - plantations worked by African slaves (Toussaint L’Ouverture, 1743-1803, leader of slave revolt in Haiti)

16 Enlightenment IDEAS: John Locke, English philosopher (1632-1704) Two Treatises of Government Social contract theory --an agreement by the governed (rational individuals) on a set of rules by which they are governed --civil rights based on the contract --legitimated by serving a general will --violation demands renegotiation or legitimates rebellion John Locke, English philosopher (1632-1704) Two Treatises of Government Social contract theory --an agreement by the governed (rational individuals) on a set of rules by which they are governed --civil rights based on the contract --legitimated by serving a general will --violation demands renegotiation or legitimates rebellion

17 Enlightenment RHETORIC:  Immanuel Kant, German philosopher (1724- 1804): “The public use of a man’s reason must be free at all times... [by this I mean] the use which a scholar makes of it before the entire reading public” (134). “What is Enlightenment?” (1784)  Immanuel Kant, German philosopher (1724- 1804): “The public use of a man’s reason must be free at all times... [by this I mean] the use which a scholar makes of it before the entire reading public” (134). “What is Enlightenment?” (1784)

18 Kant (continued) “But I hear people clamor on all sides: Don’t argue! The officer says: Don’t argue, drill! The tax collector: Don’t argue, pay! The pastor: Don’t argue, believe!” Argument: a rhetorical strategy for freedom and enlightenment “But I hear people clamor on all sides: Don’t argue! The officer says: Don’t argue, drill! The tax collector: Don’t argue, pay! The pastor: Don’t argue, believe!” Argument: a rhetorical strategy for freedom and enlightenment

19 Voltaire, French polemicist (1694-1778)  Polemics -- wars of words; attacking through language  Defender of civil liberty and freedom of religion; opposed censorship,  Attacked abuses of royalty and clergy who perpetrated superstition and intolerance  Wrote 20,000 letters; 2,000 books and pamphlets  Polemics -- wars of words; attacking through language  Defender of civil liberty and freedom of religion; opposed censorship,  Attacked abuses of royalty and clergy who perpetrated superstition and intolerance  Wrote 20,000 letters; 2,000 books and pamphlets

20 Our contemporary, polemical republic of letters  “Toxic political tone erodes civic trust and incites extremism” (U.S. Representative Hank Johnson, D-GA  “Lament about ‘political discourse’ is just cover to silence opponents” (Jonah Goldberg, editor, National Review)  “Crosshairs Used By Democrats, Critics 'Not Going To Shut Me Up’” (Sarah Palin)  “Only a more civil and honest public discourse can help us face up to our challenges as a nation” (Barack Obama)  “Toxic political tone erodes civic trust and incites extremism” (U.S. Representative Hank Johnson, D-GA  “Lament about ‘political discourse’ is just cover to silence opponents” (Jonah Goldberg, editor, National Review)  “Crosshairs Used By Democrats, Critics 'Not Going To Shut Me Up’” (Sarah Palin)  “Only a more civil and honest public discourse can help us face up to our challenges as a nation” (Barack Obama)

21

22 The Declaration of Independence: A thesis and a question  The Declaration of Independence inaugurates at the same time that it imitates. It participates in generic conventions, borrowing from other texts, but performs a founding gesture.  The Declaration gives voice to a version of the human grounded in Enlightenment political thought. The history and future uses of the document reveal a contradiction, flaw, or failure of this vision. How do we come to understand this contradiction or flaw?  The Declaration of Independence inaugurates at the same time that it imitates. It participates in generic conventions, borrowing from other texts, but performs a founding gesture.  The Declaration gives voice to a version of the human grounded in Enlightenment political thought. The history and future uses of the document reveal a contradiction, flaw, or failure of this vision. How do we come to understand this contradiction or flaw?

23 Contexts for the Declaration  Levying of taxes on the colonies by the parliament to cover expenses from the French and Indian War (Sugar Act, 1764: Stamp Act, 1765; Tea Act, 1773)  Occupation of Boston by British troops; Boston Massacre, 1770  Coercive Acts punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party, 1774  First Continental Congress, September 1774; petitions to parliament and the king; boycott  Armed resistance to British troops: April 1775  Levying of taxes on the colonies by the parliament to cover expenses from the French and Indian War (Sugar Act, 1764: Stamp Act, 1765; Tea Act, 1773)  Occupation of Boston by British troops; Boston Massacre, 1770  Coercive Acts punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party, 1774  First Continental Congress, September 1774; petitions to parliament and the king; boycott  Armed resistance to British troops: April 1775

24 Rhetorical backgrounds/sources  Locke, Two Treatises of Government  depositio apologia: deposing British monarchs (7 previous occasions from 1327-1689; a public “apology” (rationale) for dethroning a “tyrannical” monarch (Lucas 152)  Jefferson’s constitution of Virginia  Petitions of various colonies and of the First Continental Congress: “humble terms”  Thomas Paine’s Common Sense, advocating colonial independence and republican government, January 1776  Locke, Two Treatises of Government  depositio apologia: deposing British monarchs (7 previous occasions from 1327-1689; a public “apology” (rationale) for dethroning a “tyrannical” monarch (Lucas 152)  Jefferson’s constitution of Virginia  Petitions of various colonies and of the First Continental Congress: “humble terms”  Thomas Paine’s Common Sense, advocating colonial independence and republican government, January 1776

25 “The cause of America is the cause of all mankind”  50-page pamphlet; tens of thousands of copies in circulation  Letter from Washington, January 1776: “By private letters which I have lately received from Virginia, I find that ‘Common Sense’ is working a powerful change there in the minds of many men” (qtd. in Lossing 12)  “Now is the seed-time of continental union, faith and honor” (17).  “Nothing but independence... Can keep the peace of the continent” (26).  “By referring the matter from argument to arms, a new era for politics is struck--a new method of thinkings has arisen” (17).  50-page pamphlet; tens of thousands of copies in circulation  Letter from Washington, January 1776: “By private letters which I have lately received from Virginia, I find that ‘Common Sense’ is working a powerful change there in the minds of many men” (qtd. in Lossing 12)  “Now is the seed-time of continental union, faith and honor” (17).  “Nothing but independence... Can keep the peace of the continent” (26).  “By referring the matter from argument to arms, a new era for politics is struck--a new method of thinkings has arisen” (17).

26 Imitation and originality in 18th- century rhetoric  Government documents: “highly stylized”; followed protocols (Lucas 144)  John Lawson, Lectures Concerning Oratory (1758): “Eminent Persons in all Kinds of Literature, owe their first Materials to the Discovery of others”  Bees flying from flower to flower turning pollen into honey  Government documents: “highly stylized”; followed protocols (Lucas 144)  John Lawson, Lectures Concerning Oratory (1758): “Eminent Persons in all Kinds of Literature, owe their first Materials to the Discovery of others”  Bees flying from flower to flower turning pollen into honey

27 The genre of the declaration  Legal genre: a plaintiff’s written statement of charges against the defendant  Declaration of war  England: Glorious Revolution, 1688-89: Declaration of Rights -- parliament indicts James II  “the very existence [of a declaration] signaled a breakdown in the standard operations of government” (Lucas 150)  Legal genre: a plaintiff’s written statement of charges against the defendant  Declaration of war  England: Glorious Revolution, 1688-89: Declaration of Rights -- parliament indicts James II  “the very existence [of a declaration] signaled a breakdown in the standard operations of government” (Lucas 150)

28 Writing task, process  Second Continental Congress: Committee of Five -- a collaborative assignment  Jefferson charged with drafting  17 days from assignment to adoption  Second Continental Congress: Committee of Five -- a collaborative assignment  Jefferson charged with drafting  17 days from assignment to adoption

29 Organization  Declaration as essay:  introduction: “the course of human events”  philosophical background (warrant): all men are created equal; governments and the consent of the governed  supporting arguments  historical background: “we have petitioned”  conclusion/action: free and independent states; absolve allegiance; pledge our lives, fortunes, and sacred honor  Declaration as essay:  introduction: “the course of human events”  philosophical background (warrant): all men are created equal; governments and the consent of the governed  supporting arguments  historical background: “we have petitioned”  conclusion/action: free and independent states; absolve allegiance; pledge our lives, fortunes, and sacred honor

30 From draft to revision  Rejected paragraphs:  “H e has waged cruel War against human Nature itself, violating its most sacred Rights of Life and Liberty in the Persons of a distant People who never offended him, captivating and carrying them into Slavery in another Hemisphere, or to incur miserable Death, in their Transportation thither. This piratical Warfare, the opprobrium of infidel Powers, is the Warfare of the Christian King of Great Britain.  “ He has prostituted his Negative for Suppressing every legislative Attempt to prohibit or to restrain an execrable Commerce, determined to keep open a Market where Men should be bought and sold, and that this assemblage of Horrors might want no Fact of distinguished Die.  “ He is now exciting those very People to rise in Arms among us, and to purchase their Liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the People upon whom he also obtruded them: thus paying off, former Crimes committed against the Liberties of one People, with Crimes which he urges them to commit against the Lives of another. ”  Rejected paragraphs:  “H e has waged cruel War against human Nature itself, violating its most sacred Rights of Life and Liberty in the Persons of a distant People who never offended him, captivating and carrying them into Slavery in another Hemisphere, or to incur miserable Death, in their Transportation thither. This piratical Warfare, the opprobrium of infidel Powers, is the Warfare of the Christian King of Great Britain.  “ He has prostituted his Negative for Suppressing every legislative Attempt to prohibit or to restrain an execrable Commerce, determined to keep open a Market where Men should be bought and sold, and that this assemblage of Horrors might want no Fact of distinguished Die.  “ He is now exciting those very People to rise in Arms among us, and to purchase their Liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the People upon whom he also obtruded them: thus paying off, former Crimes committed against the Liberties of one People, with Crimes which he urges them to commit against the Lives of another. ”

31 What did the Declaration do?  Unified the 13 colonies: “The Unanimous Declaration...”  Put the language of natural rights into circulation: “We hold these truths to be self-evident... “  Performatively brought a nation into being -- “We, therefore,... do... publish and declare... “  Unified the 13 colonies: “The Unanimous Declaration...”  Put the language of natural rights into circulation: “We hold these truths to be self-evident... “  Performatively brought a nation into being -- “We, therefore,... do... publish and declare... “

32 Challenges/uses  Abigail Adams -- letters  Constitution of Saint Domingue: Toussaint L’Ouverture  The republic of letters: what are its spheres? genres?  Read Ch. 12 on rhetoric in the Handbook  Abigail Adams -- letters  Constitution of Saint Domingue: Toussaint L’Ouverture  The republic of letters: what are its spheres? genres?  Read Ch. 12 on rhetoric in the Handbook

33 Vote on visuals Background color? Type color? Images?


Download ppt "Declarations in Dialogue Susan Jarratt Comparative Literature Susan Jarratt Comparative Literature."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google