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Chapter 1 Science Skills Page 2

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1.1 Science - system of knowledge & methods used to find it Begins w/ curiosity…ends w/ discovery Curiosity provides ?’s Observing/measuring…means to find answers What is science? (3:54) Science From Curiosity

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Science and Technology Science / technology interdependent –Advances in 1 leads to advances in the other Science and Technology (1:39)

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Branches of Science Natural Science Physical Science Chemistry Physics Earth and Space Science Geology Astronomy Life Science Biology

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Big Ideas of Physical Science Space and Time –universe age –size Matter and Change –Small amt for universe –Volume/mass –Atoms Protons, neutrons, electrons Forces and Motion –Push/pull causes change –Laws will explain Energy –Many forms –Drives motion –Transferred/never destroyed

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Sec 1.2 Using a Scientific Approach p. 7 Scientific Method - organized plan for gathering, organizing, & communicating info –Goal….to solve problem or better understand observed event

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Copy flow chart into your notes

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A Scientific Method Making Observations –Observation – info that you obtain through your senses –Inference – conclusions drawn based on observations Develop ? / problem Form Hypothesis –proposed answer to ? –testable

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Testing a hypothesis –Manipulated (independent) variable – changed by you to test hyp. –Responding (dependent) variable – changes in response to man. var. –Controlled variable – factors kept constant to test hyp. –Control Group –setup run w/o man.var.

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Draw Conclusions – does data support hyp? Develop Theory –Scientific Theory – well-tested explanation for observations or experimental results Tells “why” Theories are never “proved” Theories may be revised or replaced Scientific Method Rap

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Scientific Laws Scientific law – statement summarizing pattern found in nature explains “what” DOES NOT attempt to explain observed pattern in nature

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Scientific Models Scientific Models - makes easier to understand things too hard to observe directly –Ex. Atomic models, models of the solar system, cell models, etc. The Scientific Method (12:07)

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Sec 1.3 Measurement p. 14 Scientific Notation – makes very large / very small #’s easer to work w/Scientific Notation – makes very large / very small #’s easer to work w/ –expressing value as # from 1-10 x power of 10 Ex. 300,000,000,000 = 3x10 11Ex. 300,000,000,000 = 3x10 11.00000006 = 6x10 -8.00000006 = 6x10 -8

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SI Units of Measurement (Metric) Length – straight line dist. btwn 2 pts.Length – straight line dist. btwn 2 pts. –meters (m) Mass – amt. of matter in objectMass – amt. of matter in object –grams (g) Volume – amt. of space occupied by objectVolume – amt. of space occupied by object –liters (L)

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Measuring Temperature 3 temp scales:3 temp scales: –Fahrenheit H 2 O freezes @ 32°FH 2 O freezes @ 32°F boils @ 212°Fboils @ 212°F –Celsius H 2 O freezes @ 0°CH 2 O freezes @ 0°C Boils @ 100°CBoils @ 100°C –Kelvin (SI base unit for temp) 0 K – lowest possible temp (= -273.15°C)0 K – lowest possible temp (= -273.15°C) K = °C + 273K = °C + 273

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Significant Figures Sig Figs are digits in a # that contribute to its precision.Sig Figs are digits in a # that contribute to its precision. A calculation can only be as precise as it’s LEAST precise measurement.A calculation can only be as precise as it’s LEAST precise measurement.

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Sig Fig Rules ALL non-zero #’s are always significant.ALL non-zero #’s are always significant. Any zero btwn two sig figs is significant.Any zero btwn two sig figs is significant. Trailing zeros are only significant in the decimal portion.Trailing zeros are only significant in the decimal portion. –13.450 (this zero is a sig fig) –1400 (these zeros are NOT sig figs)

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How many sig figs? 1)50.5 2)26.25 3)10,100 4)500 5)650 6).050 7)1.0250

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Limits of Measurement Precision – gauge of how exact a measurement isPrecision – gauge of how exact a measurement is Accuracy – closeness of a measurement to the actual valueAccuracy – closeness of a measurement to the actual value

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1.4 Presenting Scientific Data p. 22 Scientists organize data using data tables and graphs.Scientists organize data using data tables and graphs.

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Data Tables Relate the manipulated and responding variablesRelate the manipulated and responding variables

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Line Graphs Show changes in related variablesShow changes in related variables Manipulated (Independent) variable is plotted on the x-axis.Manipulated (Independent) variable is plotted on the x-axis. Responding (Dependent) variable is plotted on the y-axisResponding (Dependent) variable is plotted on the y-axis.

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Bar Graphs Often used to compare a set of measurements, amounts, or changes.Often used to compare a set of measurements, amounts, or changes.

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Circle Graphs Show how part relates to the wholeShow how part relates to the whole Entire circle represents 100%, and slices represent percentages that make up the 100%Entire circle represents 100%, and slices represent percentages that make up the 100%

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