English Grammar P ARTS OF S PEECH Presented by: Pir Suhail Ahmed Adapted by: Mrs. Yancey
E IGHT P ARTS OF S PEECH Nouns Adjecti ves Pronouns Adverbs Conjunctions Prepositions Verb s Interjections
A A Person An An Idea A A Thing Place A word that names
K INDS OF N OUNS Common Nouns (a general person, place, thing, or idea) boy Girl Proper Nouns (a specific person, place, thing, or idea) Ali Italy Singular Nouns (one person, place, thing, or idea) boy Girl Plural Nouns (more than one person, place thing or idea) boys Girls Singular Possessive (one person place, thing, or idea that shows possession) boy’s girl’s Plural Possessive (more than one person, place, thing or idea that shows possession) boys’ girls’
Concrete Nouns (a person, place, thing, or idea that occupies space or can be recognized by one of the five senses) guitar house smoke Abstract Nouns (a person, place, thing, or idea that names an idea, quality, or characteristic) happiness humor bravery Collective Nouns (a person, place, thing, or idea that names a group) family audience Team K INDS OF N OUNS
Indefinite Pronouns (refers to persons, places, or things in a more general way than a noun does) anybody, one, each, all, another, any, both, few, several, either, none, someone, many, most, much, no one Personal Pronouns (refers to a specific person or thing) I, me, we, us, you, he, him, she, her, it, they them Demonstrative Pronouns ( points out specific persons, places, things, or ideas) this, that, these, those Pronouns The pronoun is a word used in place of one or more nouns. It may stand for a person, place, thing, or idea. The word it stands for is the antecedent.
Interrogative Pronouns (used to form questions) who whom what which whose Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns (reflexive pronouns reflect back to a noun or pronoun while an intensive pronoun adds emphasis) myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, itself, themselves Pronouns Continued…
A word that expresses action or otherwise helps to make a statement. Every sentence must have a verb. Verb Subject Predicate Verb
K INDS OF V ERBS Action verbs express mental or physical action. Transitive verbs are action verbs that are followed by words that answer the question what? or whom? Cats see their prey in the dark. Intransitive verbs are action verbs that is not followed by words that answer the questions what? or whom? Cats see well. He rode the horse to victory.
K INDS OF V ERBS Linking verbs make a statement by connecting the subject with a word that describes or explains it. Common Linking Verbs: am, is, are, was, were, seem, be Other Linking Verbs: look, remain, seem, become, stay, grow, appear, sound, taste, smell, feel He has been sick.
K INDS OF V ERBS Verb Phrases are verbs that consist of more than one word. Helping verbs are words that assist the main verb. Common Helping Verbs: am, is, are, was, were, Seem, be, has, have, had, can, could, do, does, did, may, might, must, do, does, did, shall, should, will, would
Modifies or describes a noun or pronoun. Answers these questions: Adjective
Adjectives Continued Articles - The words “a,” “an,” and “the” are called articles. Articles are adjectives! She found a ring. They spotted an iceberg. He was the honorable choice. Proper adjectives – These are words that are formed from proper nouns and begin with a capital letter. Ex. Rembrandt was a Dutch painter. The Berlin Wall came down in 1989.
Adverb Modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Answers these questions:
the word “not” and the contraction “n’t” are adverbs! - ex. The plane has not landed.
Introduces a noun or pronoun or a phrase or clause functioning in the sentence as a noun. The word or word group that the preposition introduces is its object. Preposition
aboard about above across after against along among around at before behind below beneath beside between beyond by down during except for from in into like of off on over past since through throughout to toward under underneath until up upon with within without C OMMON P REPOSITIONS
A word that joins words or groups of words. and however because either/or neither/nor Conjunction but so if although then thus
Coordinating Conjunctions for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so Correlative Conjuncitons Both…and, just as…so, not only…but also, either…or, neither…nor, whether…or Subordinating Conjunctions After, although, as, as far as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, considering that, if, inasmuch as, in order that, provided that, since, so long as, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, while
An exclamatory word that expresses emotion. Interjection