Carbon Compounds Why is carbon the chemical backbone for life? Why not oxygen or hydrogen?
1.Carbon atoms can form not 1, not 2, not 3, but 2.Carbon atoms have a great tendency to _____________ ____________. 3.Carbon atoms can bond in multiple ways to produce ________________________ four covalent bonds. bond with other carbon atoms a variety of molecular shapes.
Big Idea Why is carbon so important and unique?
Other Biochem basics Since Biochemistry uses so many C’s and H’s, we can simplify our structures by “hiding” some of them
Other Biochem basics There is a Carbon atom at each corner or point DON’T FORGET ABOUT THIS!! It is also assumed that, if no atom is shown, Carbons remaining bonds are filled up with H
The many shapes of carbon Draw a molecule with carbon and hydrogen atoms that would look like a: –Straight chain –Branched chain –Ring
Functional groups groups of ______ within a carbon molecule that has characteristic properties. They replace the _________ on the carbon backbone. They influence the _________ of the molecule. They add more ___________ and diversity to organic compounds. atoms hydrogen properties complexity
Big Idea Organic compounds can be drawn in a simplified way Some organic compounds have more complex functional groups attached
Biological Macromolecules 4 Major Classes of organic compounds: 1.Carbohydrates 2.Lipids 3.Nucleic Acids 4.Proteins
Building macromolecules Monomer: small, simple _________________. Polymer: molecule that is made from many joined ___________. _______ polymers are called macromolecules. Monomers are linked together through a chemical reaction called dehydration synthesis molecular unit monomers Large
Dehydration Synthesis One monomer loses a hydrogen. Another monomer loses a hydroxyl (OH) group. This makes water! Then the monomers form a new bond between the two atoms that just lost a bond. New monomers are added to the growing polymer.
Dehydration synthesis: - Step 1: begin with at least two unlinked monomers OH HO OH HO +
Dehydration synthesis: - Step 2: Remove an H from monomer 1 and an OH from monomer 2 - The H and OH combine to form water O HO OH + HOH = H2O HOH
Dehydration synthesis: - Step 3: connect what is left of the monomers O HO OH + H2O O HO OH+ H2O +
Dehydration synthesis: Final products: 1 Growing chain - (beginnings of a polymer) 1 Water molecule O HO OH + H2O
Example of Dehydration Synthesis H2OH2O http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UyDnnD3fMaU
Hydrolysis: Chemical reaction that uses water to separate polymers into monomers. (Break apart) - Exactly the opposite of Dehydration synthesis
Hydrolysis A water molecule is split into the H + and OH - ions. A bond of the polymer is broken when these ions attach. This process breaks down polymers into monomers.
*Word Hint* “hydro-” means _______________. “-lysis” means
Hydrolysis: - Step 1: Start with polymer and 1 water molecule O HO OH + H2O
Hydrolysis: - Step 2: Break water into 1 H and 1 OH - Add the H to one monomer and the OH to the other; O HO OH HHO
Hydrolysis: - Step 3: Split the bond between monomers OHOH HO OH HO
Hydrolysis: - Final Product: Two unlinked monomers OHOH HO OH HO