The purpose of economics The purpose of economics Economics seeks to answer the basic question of how to deal with SCARCITY.
Law of Scarcity States that society has insufficient productive resources to fulfill all human wants and needs.society Scarcity implies that not all of society's goals can be pursued at the same time; trade-offs are made of one good against others.trade-offs
Economic Systems An economic system describes how a country’s economy is organized Because of the problem of scarcity, every country needs a system to determine how to use its productive resources Scarcity = not having enough of something An economic system must answer 3 questions…
Economic Systems 1. WHAT TO PRODUCE? (What kinds of goods and services should be produced?) 2. HOW TO PRODUCE? (What productive resources are used to produce goods and services?) 3. FOR WHOM TO PRODUCE? (Who gets to have the goods and services?
Three Types of Economic Systems: 1. Traditional Economy 2. Command Economy 3. Market Economy * Most countries are… Mixed Economies! (Market + Command)
Distribution of Public/Private Property Private property is the right of persons and firms to obtain, own, control, employ, dispose of, and bequeath land, capital, and other forms of property.rightpersonsfirmsownemploylandcapitalproperty Public property refers to assets owned by a state, community or government rather than by individuals or a business entity.assetsstatecommunitygovernment
Traditional Economy An economic system in which economic decisions are based on customs and beliefs People will make what they always made & will do the same work their parents did Exchange of goods is done through Bartering : trading without using money
Traditional Economy Who decides what to produce? People follow their customs and make what their ancestors made Who decides how to produce goods & services? People grow & make things the same way that their ancestors did Who are the goods & services produced for? People in the village who need them
Traditional Economy Examples: Villages in Africa and South America the Inuit tribes in Canada the caste system in parts of rural India the Aborigines in Australia
Command System Government makes all economic decisions & owns most of the property Governmental planning groups determine such things as the prices of goods/services & the wages of workers This system has not been very successful & more and more countries are abandoning it
Command Economy Who decides what to produce? Government makes all economic decisions Who decides how to produce goods and services? Government decides how to make goods/services Who are the goods and services produced for? Whoever the government decides to give them to
Command System Countries with communist governments have Command economies Examples: There are no truly pure command economic systems, but close countries are: North Korea, former Soviet Union, Cuba *Germany and Russia have moved away from having a Command economy since 1991. Now they have a Mixed economy.
Market Economy An economic system in which production and distribution questions are answered by prices and profits (supply and demand) Most of the resources are owned by private citizens Economic decisions are based on Free Enterprise (competition between companies) Important economic questions are not answered by gov. but by individuals Gov. does not tell a business what goods to produce or what price to charge
Market Economy Who decides what to produce? Businesses base decisions on supply and demand and free enterprise (PRICE) Who decides how to produce goods and services? Businesses decide how to produce goods Who are the goods and services produced for? consumers
Market Economy There are no truly pure Market economies, but the United States is close.
In a truly free market economy, the government would not be involved at all There would be no laws to protect workers form unfair bosses There would be no rules to make sure that credit cards were properly protected Many societies have chosen to have some rules to protect consumers, workers, and businesses (MIXED) These rules reduce the freedoms that businesses have, but they also protect the workers and consumers
Mixed Economy Market + Command = Mixed There are no pure command or market economies. To some degree, all modern economies exhibit characteristics of both systems and are often referred to as mixed economies. Most economies are closer to one type of economic system than another Businesses own most resources and determine what and how to produce, but the government regulates certain industries
Mixed Economy Who decides what to produce? businesses Who decides how to produce goods and services? Businesses, but the government regulates certain industries Who are the goods and services produced for? consumers
Mixed Economies Most democratic countries fall in this category (there are no truly pure Market or Command economies). Examples: Brazil, Mexico, Canada, UK, US, Germany, Russia, Australia, etc.
Economy Continuum CommandMarket CubaRussia Germany US Australia UK
Which Economic System Is Best? Market system has proven to be best because it promotes the goals of growth, freedom, & efficiency Citizens are free to own their own property and use it in the most efficient and profitable way Command and Traditional systems sometimes offer more security, but are not nearly as strong in efficiency, growth, freedom, and environmental quality