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Introduction to Process Technology Unit 7 Principles of Quality.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Process Technology Unit 7 Principles of Quality."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Process Technology Unit 7 Principles of Quality

2 Today’s Agenda Quality – I’ll Know It When I See It Current Issues and Trends Pioneers of Quality Total Quality Management (TQM) –The Production Line Activity International Organization of Standards (ISO) Statistical Process Control (SPC) Supporting Quality – Role of Proc Tech

3 Quality – What it Means to Me List your expectations for quality as a customer List your expectations as a member of a plant community List your expectations of quality as a potential plant employee List your expectations of quality as a potential investor (stockholder)

4 Industry Responses Total Quality Management (TQM) ISO-9000 Series ISO-14000 Series (environmental) Six Sigma Statistical Process Control (SPC) Self-directed or Self-managed Work Teams

5 Pioneers of Quality Dr. W. Edward Deming –Deming Cycle Theory of Quality Control –Every task or every job is part of a process –In 1947 he was discounted by American manufacturers. Went to Japan and worked with their manufacturers to transform industry.

6 Pioneers of Quality Joseph Juran –Predicted Japenese would lead world in quality –Pareto Principle (80/20 Rule) 80% of problems come from 20% of causes Separating a vital few from many

7 Pioneers of Quality Philip Crosby –Best known for concept of Zero Defects in early 1960’s –Summed up quality with one word “prevention”

8 Total Quality Management (TQM) Customer Focus Continuous Improvement Manage by Data and Facts Empower Employees

9 Total Quality Management (TQM) Customer Focus –Quality is always determined for the customers’ point of view. –It is measured by the degree of customer satisfaction with products and services

10 Total Quality Management (TQM) Continuous Improvement –Improving the activities used to produce products and services will result in better outcomes. –Create a process that makes it easy to do things the right way and hard to do things the wrong way

11 Total Quality Management (TQM) Manage by Data and Facts –The helps us understand how the processes work, what can be produced, and where improvements can be made

12 Total Quality Management (TQM) Empower Employees –Top management must demonstrate their personal buy-in, commitment, and involvement –Every employee is free to question, challenge, suggest, and change the way that products are produced and/or services are delivered

13 TQM Applied The Production Line Activity (see handout)

14 International Organization of Standardization ISO-9000 ISO-14000 (environmental) ANSI / ISO / ASQC

15 ISO in the Processing Industry Continuous Improvement Statistical Process Control (SPC) Role of ALL Employees Global Market

16 Statistical Process Control STATISTICAL –With the help of numbers PROCESS –We study the characteristics of our process CONTROL –To make it behave the way we want it to behave

17 Quality Control Tools Control Charts Flow Charts Cause and Effects Diagrams, Fishbone Pareto Charts Histograms Scatter Plots Others

18 You Be the Expert You will be assigned one of the types of quality control tools You will become the expert and share that knowledge with your Science, Inc. co-workers Everyone will work on a case study to apply these tools to a real-world situation

19 What the Expert Needs to Share Purpose of the specific quality control tool When it is useful to use this one What it looks like –Data needed –Diagram, chart, graph, etc Give a brief demonstration on how to use the tool on a made up scenario

20 Fishbone Diagrams Purpose: –Identify different causes that lead to an effect –Categorize the causes under different categories Helps When: –Trying to organize brainstorming ideas for further evaluation

21 Fishbone Diagrams Typical categories for the branches: –Materials –Machinery –Measurement –Methods –People –Environment However, can create other/different categories better suited to your specific problem.



24 Pareto Chart Purpose: –Ranking problems from big to small Helps when: –Team needs to know which problems to address first. Demonstrates 80/20 rule –20% of the causes account for 80% of the problems Highlights the important elements (the “vital few”) and the insignificant ones (the “trivial many”)




28 Histograms Purpose: –To indicate the distribution and variation of sample data Helps to: –Determine if process is in statistical control – can indicate if “special causes” are causing control problems –Histograms roughly approximate the normal distribution if everything is in control.



31 Distributions can be represented in several ways.


33 Control Charts Purpose: –To track process variation Helps to: –Determine if process is in statistical control A line graph that indicates: Samples vary from the process average If samples are in statistical control (w/in control limits)


35 Control Charts

36 Process Technician and Quality Improvement Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and Predictive/Preventive Maintenance (PPM) Using Quality Control Tools Working as Teams Follow standard practices – such as ISO

37 Six Sigma Relatively new quality management tool Developed in 1980’s based on Juran’s concept of ZERO DEFECTS Aim is to reduce process variation so that there are no more than 3.4 defects per 1,000,000. (99.99966%)

38 Six Sigma DMAIC – Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. –Improvement system for existing processes that fall below specifications and will be improved incrementally

39 Six Sigma DMADV – Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, Verify –Improvement process system utilized to develop new processes or products at levels that meet Six Sigma from the beginning. –System can also be used for existing processes that require more than incremental improvement

40 Summary Quality is applied to all aspects of the process industry Everyone has a role and a responsibility in quality There are accepted methods and statistical tools in place to perform quality analyses

41 Student Activities Chapter 13 – pages 200 – 218 Answer Questions 1 – 13 on pages 218 & 219 Do Activities 2 & 3 on page 220

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