Presentation on theme: "Urbanization 10 CHAPTER Placeholder opening page, but maybe we can duplicate the look of the SE chapter opener page by using the same fonts and colors."— Presentation transcript:
1 Urbanization10CHAPTERPlaceholder opening page, but maybe we can duplicate the look of the SE chapter opener page by using the same fonts and colors (and maybe that Ch 14 icon?)
2 Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization For the first time in history, there are now more urban residents than rural residents.
3 ObjectivesDifferentiate between land cover and land use, and describe how people affect bothExplain how and where urbanization occursDescribe the environmental impacts of urbanization
4 Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization Land Cover and Land UseLand cover: Vegetation and structures that cover land.Land use: Human activities that occur on landHumans change land cover, especially in urban areas. These changes have environmental and economic effects.
5 Land Cover and Environmental Science Land cover may change as people settle thereScientist need information regarding land cover change to assess its impact on Earth’s ecosystems
6 Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization Urban and Rural AreasRural: Any other type of land use or land cover (includes forests, cropland, etc.)Urban: Land mostly covered with buildings and roads (includes suburbs)
7 Urbanization Occurs when people move from rural areas to cities Lesson 10.1 Land Use and UrbanizationUrbanizationOccurs when people move from rural areas to citiesCities are not new, but the enormous size of today’s cities is. More than 20 cities have at least 10 million residents.
8 The Rise of Cities • 80% of U.S. population is urban Lesson 10.1 Land Use and UrbanizationThe Rise of Cities• 80% of U.S. population is urbanFactors that contribute to the rise of urbanization include population growth and industrialization.Most cities are located near a transportation route such as a large body of water, railroad, or highway.Image - (Creative Commons licensed)Geyser info source - National Park Service:Chicago’s location on Lake Michigan helped it grow into a large and prosperous city.Did You Know? Since 1950, the world’s urban population has more than quadrupled. According to U.N. projections, it will double again by 2050.
9 Environmental Costs of Urbanization Lesson 10.1 Land Use and UrbanizationEnvironmental Costs of UrbanizationPollution: Increased waste, industrial byproducts, noise pollution, light pollutionUrban area may pay another area to take their waste and pass the cost to residents unknowinglyUrban residents are exposed to heavy metals, chemical byproducts, smog, acid rain, etc.Noise pollution: constructionLight pollution: street lightsPoor residents typically live in more polluted areas
10 Environmental Costs of Urbanization Heat islands: Cities, several degrees warmer than surrounding areas, affect local weather and trap pollutants.Partially caused by infrastructure which turns areas such as grassland into pavementPavement in cities can be ° C hotter than surrounding airEffect can be lessened by installing shade trees and roofs that reflect rather than absorb heatInfrastructure: Made up of facilities, services, and installations needed for the functioning of a community. Ex: transportation, communication systems, water, power, and schools.
11 Environmental Costs of Urbanization Imported resources: Fossil fuels are burned to import food, water, fuel, and raw materialsOn the contrary, if the world’s 3.3 billion urban residents were spread out evenly, it would require even more fossil fuel to transport resources to all of them
12 Environmental Benefits of Urbanization Lesson 10.1 Land Use and UrbanizationEnvironmental Benefits of UrbanizationEfficiency: Less fuel and resources needed to distribute goods and services to residents such as mail, healthcare, education, water, power, etc.Land Preservation: Dense urban centers leave room for agriculture, wilderness, biodiversity, and privacy.
13 Environmental Benefits of Urbanization Universities and research centers: Urban areas tend to foster education and innovation.Leads to ideas that reduce negative environmental impacts such as renewable energy sources, ways of reducing pollution, means of recycling resources effectivelyWealthy educated people tend to buy more organic foodHowever, this wealth in urban areas causes them to have a larger ecological footprint than rural areas
14 Objectives RevisitedDifferentiate between land cover and land use, and describe how people affect bothExplain how and where urbanization occursDescribe the environmental impacts of urbanization
15 Lesson SprawlIn 1950, 65% of the U.S. population lived in urban (including suburban) areas, while 35% lived rurally. In 2010, 89% was urban and only 11% rural.Los Angeles, CA, is one the most sprawling U.S. cities.
16 Objectives Describe the contribution to sprawl and its patterns Explain the impacts sprawl has on an area
17 Lesson 10.2 SprawlWhat Is Sprawl?The spread of low-density urban or suburban development outward from a dense urban corePeople move to suburbs for additional space and privacy, cheaper real estate, cleaner neighborhoods, less crimes, better schools, etc.As people move from cities, they spend less money there and inner cities become poorer and unemployment and crime rise.This causes even more people to move from the city and for the suburb itself to growOften, growth of suburban areas outpaces population growth because suburbs allow more space per person than cities.
18 Primary Contributors to Sprawl Lesson 10.2 SprawlPrimary Contributors to SprawlPopulation growthEach person lives on more land (increase in per capita land consumption)On average, these two factors are equally important, but one may be more important than another in a specific city.
20 Patterns of Sprawl Uncentered Commercial (Strip) Development: Lesson 10.2 SprawlPatterns of SprawlUncentered Commercial (Strip) Development:Businesses arranged in long strip along roadway with no central community
21 Patterns of Sprawl Low-Density Development: Homes are located on large lots in residential areas far from businesses
22 Patterns of Sprawl Scattered Development: Residential developments are built far from a city center and are not integrated with one another
23 Patterns of Sprawl Sparse Street Network Roads are far enough apart that areas remain undeveloped
24 Lesson 10.2 SprawlImpacts of SprawlTransportation: Little to no public transportation for people on outskirts; people forced to drive carsPollution: Increased driving leads to pollution.Public health: May promote inactivity, and by extension obesity and high blood pressureLand Use: Low density development means less land left as open space, forests, and farmsEconomics: Wealth tending to concentrate in suburbs, leaving urban areas poor with failing infrastructure
25 Objectives RevisitedDescribe the contribution to sprawl and its patternsExplain the impacts sprawl has on an area
26 Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities More than 600 “new urbanist” communities are planned or in construction across North America.
27 Objectives Describe four different components of city planning Explain the importance of mass transit options to a city and its residentsExplain the importance of open space to a livable cityDifferentiate green buildings from conventional buildingsDiscuss the progress toward sustainability some cities have made and its importance to the world
28 Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities City PlanningCity planners attempt to design cities that both work well (function) and look and feel appealing (beauty).City planners advise on development options, transportation needs, public parks, etc.City planners use geographic information systems (GIS) to store, manipulate, and view geographic dataCan layer maps and expose conflicts in proposed uses of land such as a processing plant too close to a school
29 City PlanningZoning: Classification of land areas for different types of development and land useAn area can be mixed use or single use.Involves restrictions on the use of private land; some people feel it violates freedomsCan give home owner security in knowing what can an can not be built near them
30 Urban Growth Boundaries (UGBs) Lesson 10.3 Sustainable CitiesUrban Growth Boundaries (UGBs)A line drawn around a city to separate urban areas from rural areas, with limited permission for developmentAdvantages: Saves 20% in infrastructure costs compared with sprawl; decreases per capita land use; promotes economic development within the city; preserve orchards, ranches, forest, farms, etc.Disadvantages: Does not completely stop sprawl; UGB often needs to be expanded to accommodate population growth; limits rights of private landowners
31 Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities Smart GrowthFocuses on economic and environmental approaches to avoiding sprawlBuilds “up,” not “out”Maintains open spaces by redeveloping existing urban areas, waterfronts, and industrial sites
32 Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities “New Urbanism”Seeks to design neighborhoods that minimize the need to drive; homes, businesses, schools all close togetherRequires good public transportation systemsSometimes impossible due to zoning restrictions that don’t allow business and residential to mix and limit densityDid You Know? A 2004 study found that residents of sprawling areas were heavier on average for their height, and had increased instances of high blood pressure.
33 Transportation Options Lesson 10.3 Sustainable CitiesTransportation OptionsPublic transportation a key factor in the quality of urban lifeBuses, subways, trains more efficient, less polluting than carsCities encourage mass transit with fuel taxes, vehicle taxes, rewarding carpoolers, and encouraging bicycle and bus use.Did You Know? Paris, France removed 200,000 parking spaces to encourage the use of public transportation within the city.
34 Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities Open SpaceProvides greenery, beauty, freedom of movement, recreation opportunitiesIncludes parks, playgrounds, community gardens, greenwaysRegulates climate, produces oxygen, filters air and water, provides habitatDid You Know? More than 24,000 km of abandoned public rail line in the U.S. have been converted to trails for walking, jogging, and biking.
35 Open SpaceEcological restoration: practice of restoring native communitiesRemoval of invasive speciesBring back original landscapeGreenways: strip of vegetated open space that connect parks or neighborhoodsProtect water qualityIncrease attractiveness and property valueServe as corridors between habitats
36 Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities Green Building DesignThe goals of a green building are to save energy and resources without sacrificing people’s comfort.Motion and light sensitive heating and lighting, solar panels, climate control systems, use of natural light for heating and lighting purposes
37 Urban Sustainability Successes Lesson 10.3 Sustainable CitiesUrban Sustainability SuccessesCuritiba, BrazilEfficient bus networkRecycling and environmental education providedNew York CityPlan underway to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve public transit, plant trees, clean up polluted sites, and improve open space accessThe tube at this Curitiba bus stop handles fare collection for passengers boarding or exiting.
38 Objectives RevisitedDescribe four different components of city planningExplain the importance of mass transit options to a city and its residentsExplain the importance of open space to a livable cityDifferentiate green buildings from conventional buildingsDiscuss the progress toward sustainability some cities have made and its importance to the world