Presentation on theme: "Objective 1.1: Identify unicellular organisms, including bacteria & protists, by their methods of locomotion, reproduction, ingestion, excretion, and effects."— Presentation transcript:
1 Objective 1.1: Identify unicellular organisms, including bacteria & protists, by their methods of locomotion, reproduction, ingestion, excretion, and effects on other organisms.Invention of the microscope led to discovery of unicellular organisms.Advances in technology have led us to discover the good & bad of microorganisms, benefiting the world.
2 How we divide the unicellular organisms: Organisms are put into domains & kingdoms based on 3 things:Cell type: prokaryotes or eukaryotesAbility to make food: heterotroph or autotrophNumber of cells in bodies: unicellular (1 cell) or multicellular (many cells)
3 3 DomainsBacteria: prokaryotes (no nucleus), autotrophic or heterotrophic, microscopicArchaea (Archeabacteria): prokaryotes (no nucleus), autotrophic or heterotrophic; microscopic; no cell walls; extreme environments (hot, cold, salty, acidic)Eurkarya: eukaryotes, nucleus; in 4 kingdoms—protists, fungi, plants, or animals
4 Domain: Prokarya, Kingdom: Eubacteria Many are decomposers that break down dead organisms & wastes.Some are producers, making their own foodUse conjugation or binary fission to reproduce
5 Conjugation in E. coli bacteria Here you canconjugation—transferof genetic materialthrough a threadlikebridge—it’s bacterialsex.
6 Binary fission in E. coli bacteria asexual reproductionin which the cellbasically copies itselfand undergoes celldivision—special typeof mitosis
7 Domain: Eurkarya, Kingdom: Protista (the protists) CANNOT be classified as plant, animal, or fungus“odds and ends” kingdomMainly unicellular others multicellular, so it is usually referred to as single-celled/unicellularClassified by the way they get energy--some autotrophs others heterotrophs
8 Examples of Protists Euglena: use flagella to move Amoeba: Use pseudopods(false feet; cytoplasmicExtensions to move)
9 How protists like the Euglena and Amoeba reproduce Both of these organisms reproduce asexually by binary fission—a special type of mitosis.Can produce ENDOSPORES when conditions are bad, preventing the species from extinction.
10 Picture of a typical endospore, used by bacteria & protists Remain dormant until conditions in the environment are favorable for developmentAn endosporeis a tough, resistantstructure used forsurvival duringconditions notfavorable forreproduction
11 Examples of Protists Paramecium Use cilia—hair-likeprojections aroundits body tomoveReproduce sexually by conjugation & asexually by binary fission.Reproduce with endospores when times are bad.
12 Getting food & dumping wastes in protists Animal-like protists ingest their food—the process is called ingestion—surrounding it with pseudopods or engulfing it and trapping it in a food vacuole for digestion, a process known as endocytosis.for endocytosis animation by amoebaContractile vacuoles keep these single-celled animals from exploding due to excess water that collects in their cytoplasm due to osmosis. They collect the excess water & then excrete it—the process is called excretion.
13 All organisms dump wastes through this process Exocytosis—think ex = exitthis is the process where unwanted materials in the cell are literally dumped out of the cell. this may be through contractile vacuoles, diffusion, or in more complex structures such as those of the paramecium, the anal pore.for exocytosis animation
15 Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Fungi Multicellular eukaryotes except yeasts which are unicellullarHeterotrophs, can act as decomposersAbsorb nutrients to get energyCell walls presentReproduce using endosporesExamples: molds, yeasts, mushrooms