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Published byKristina Evans Modified about 1 year ago

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**Applied EVM to design of Mini Hydro Power Plant**

Fernando Roque

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Agenda: a) Institute of Energy of Japan: Potential of Guatemala to stop dependency of oil using hydro power plants to generate energy. b) Work Break down Structure for hydro power plant project. b.1) Stakeholders Management c) Matrix of Responsabilities. d) Critical Path, Activities-Costs and Planned Value. e) Technical Requirements and it's Earned Value advance control.

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Hydro Santa Teresa MW. North of Guatemala Source:http://www.s21.com.gt/pulso/2012/04/16/hidroelectricas-aportan-35-energia

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**Guatemala: Mini/Medium Hydro Power Plan: 5 - 20 MW of Power.**

Hydro Power Plants in operation in Guatemala. source: Guatemala Government:

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**Target: Reduce the Oil energy dependence**

Target: Reduce the Oil energy dependence. Actual and future plans of Hydro Power Generation in Guatemala. Souce: Institute Energy of Japan.Link:

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**Hydro Power Plant Design WBS**

Quantitative & Qualitative RISK identification of negative stakeholders. Internal Project STAKEHOLDERS Technical Requirements Investors, Engineers, Project Manager HEAD & FLOW calculation Communication strategy with Anthropology and Social Expert Communication Strategy Optimal pipeline diameter calculation Communication Project. Fail = No Hydro Power Plant construction. EVM evaluation outside of this conference scope. Technical requirements, resources & cost and advance criteria reports Water Power Calculation Turbine right choice. Generator AC calculations. Resp. Ass. Matrix, Int.BaseLine, Planned Value

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**Stakeholders Management**

IMPACT Local Communities Environmental Groups Local Government Press-Media Public Opinion Central Government POWER

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**Stakeholders Management PV Definition**

Stakeholders Management PV Definition. EV outside of the scope of the presentation.

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**NICATION STRATEGY AND Resp. Ass. Mat.**

Activity Time(days) Responsible EVM 0-100% Metthod Head Calculation Direct Distance Measurement 4 Finish after 25 measres Head Calculation: Water pressure measurement Finish after 25 measures. Head Calculation: Final HEAD Calculations (Gross Head, Pipeline length) 1 Finish after calculations Flow Calculation Container Fill Flow Calculation: Speed with Float Flow Calculation: Design Flow (most stable flow along the year) Finish after calculation NET HEAD: Optimal pipeline diameter to avoid friction 3 Water Power depending on the FLOW variation 2 Water Power: Turbine choose: fixed or variable orifice nozzle Finish after calculation. Water Power: Frequency: Depends on the flow speed INTERNAL STAKE HOLDERS COMMU- NICATION STRATEGY AND Resp. Ass. Mat.

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**Technical Requirements WBS**

Calculations and field data Head Flow Optimal Pipeline diameter Turbines Generators Current AC/DC. Frequency depends on flow speed and rotation. Depends on HEAD and Flow Fixed or adjustable orifice nozzle to keep flow spped.

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Critical Path

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**The most important data in Hydro Power Plant design**

Pipeline=water intake. Diameter important for net flow. Head= Water pressure created by difference in elevation. water fall Flow= volume per time unit of water into the turbine. Turbine

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**Resource Cost per Activity -> PV Definition**

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**Resource Cost per Activity -> PV Definition**

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**Planned Value for each Execution day to calculate EV**

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Measuring HEAD a) Direct Distance Measurement Vertical measurements. A/B/C/D/Eusing a transit level. The HEAD must me measured from pipeline intake to water turbine vertical foot = psi 1 psi = 2.31 vertical feet A B C D E WATER INTAKE TURBINE

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Measuring HEAD: EV

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Measuring HEAD b) Water pressure measurement Attach one long garden hose from the pipeline intake to the water turbine. Then measure the pressure and do the conversion to vertical feet. -One PSI equals to 2.31 vertical feet. -The above measurements are for gross head. The net head is 85-90% of the gross head due to pipeline friction loss. The above data is for GROSS HEAD. The NET HEAD is after calculate the friction loss due of the pipeline (see below).

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**EV: HEAD Water Pressure Measurement**

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Measuring FLOW Measuring with FLOAT: It can be used for large streams. Locate a section of 10 feet long where stream is stable in depth and width. Step One: Average depth of the stream. Take different measurements of the depth of the stream and then get the average. Step Two: Area section. Multiply the average depth by the width of the stream. For example 12 feet wide by 3 feet will give an area of 36 square feet.Step three: Measure the speed of the flow using an orange or a ball. For example: 12 feet / 2 seconds = 2 feet per second. Equals to 120 feet per minute. Step Four: Compute flow. Multiply feet traveled by area. 120 feet * 36 square feet= 4,320 cubic feet per minute. Friction factor ,585.6 cubic feet per minute.

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Measuring FLOW FLOAT Water Level Average Depth Distance/TIME

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Measuring FLOW -The above calculation is the Gross Flow. -The NET FLOW is the most stable flow of the system along all seasons of the year, even in summer. -The NET FLOW determines the decision of the type of turbine to choose. a) fixed orifice nozzle b) Adjustable orifice nozzle to adapt the water speed when the flow changes during different year's seasons.

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**EV FLOW: Speed with a Float**

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**EV: Head and Flow Consolidated**

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PIPELINE Design -The pipeline diameter determines the NET HEAD. -The optimal calculation of diameter will impact on Water Power. Since the flow changes over season to season, the NET HEAD is constant. But it has to be optimized to avoid friction losses due of the pipeline. -The INPUT data to calculate are: 1)Gross Head. 2)Pipeline length 3)Design Flow 4) Accept HEAD loose 5) Pipeline Friction loss tableWider diameter is more optimal but more expensive.

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**Water Power & PIPELINE Design**

Horse Power = NET HEAD_Pressure * Design Flow / 8.8 Kilo Watts = NET HEAD_Pressure * Design Flow / Pipeline friction loss table per 100 feet: NET FLOW GALS. PIPELINE DIAMETER LOSS 200 4'' 2.02 6'' 0.29 For Example:Gross HEAD: 100 feet.PIPELINE length: 400 feetDesign Flow: 200 gals. per minute.Accept loss: %. Equals feet.

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**EV: Head, Flow, Pipeline Consolidated**

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Turbines a) Reaction: works totally immersed in water. Designed for low-HEAD (pressure) systems with high FLOW. b) Impulse: Operate in the air. Driven by one or two velocity jets of water. Designed for high HEAD systems. c) Cross flow: it is not entirely immersed in water. It is used for low-head, high flow systems. Power depends of HEAD and FLOW. So a wider orifice moves more water (Flow) at the same velocity, generates more electricity. In dry season, FLOW drops so the a smaller orifice will keep the FLOW at the same optimum velocity. d) A fixed orifice turbine can be chosen. The operation must shut down to change the orifice diameter. e) A more expensive turbine has a variable orifice. Can be changed during operation. (guide to Hydropower. A Publication of Canyon Hydro.)

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Generator a) Converts the rotational power of the turbine into electrical power. It generates Direct Current and Alternate Current. AC is used for most appliances. b) Another point important for design is the frequency measured in Hertz. Again the Herz depends on the rotational speed of the turbine. And it depends on HEAD and FLOW. (guide to Hydropower. A Publication of Canyon Hydro.)

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**Head, Flow, Pipeline, Turbine: EV Consolidated**

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**Bibliography Guide to Hydropower. A Publication of Canyon Hydro.**

power.pdf Guatemala Government Electrical Commission:http://www.cnee.gob.gt/estudioselectricos/ MapaPresas.html Institute of Energy of Japan: Siglo XXI newspaper from Guatemala:http://www.s21.com.gt/pulso/2012/04/16/hidr oelectricas-aportan-35-energia

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