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About OMICS Group OMICS Group International is an amalgamation of Open Access publications and worldwide international science conferences and events.

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Presentation on theme: "About OMICS Group OMICS Group International is an amalgamation of Open Access publications and worldwide international science conferences and events."— Presentation transcript:

1 About OMICS Group OMICS Group International is an amalgamation of Open Access publications and worldwide international science conferences and events. Established in the year 2007 with the sole aim of making the information on Sciences and technology ‘Open Access’, OMICS Group publishes 400 online open access scholarly journals in all aspects of Science, Engineering, Management and Technology journals. OMICS Group has been instrumental in taking the knowledge on Science & technology to the doorsteps of ordinary men and women. Research Scholars, Students, Libraries, Educational Institutions, Research centers and the industry are main stakeholders that benefitted greatly from this knowledge dissemination. OMICS Group also organizes 300 International conferences annually across the globe, where knowledge transfer takes place through debates, round table discussions, poster presentations, workshops, symposia and exhibitions.Open Access publicationsscholarly journalsInternational conferences

2 About OMICS Group Conferences OMICS Group International is a pioneer and leading science event organizer, which publishes around 400 open access journals and conducts over 300 Medical, Clinical, Engineering, Life Sciences, Pharma scientific conferences all over the globe annually with the support of more than 1000 scientific associations and 30,000 editorial board members and 3.5 million followers to its credit. OMICS Group has organized 500 conferences, workshops and national symposiums across the major cities including San Francisco, Las Vegas, San Antonio, Omaha, Orlando, Raleigh, Santa Clara, Chicago, Philadelphia, Baltimore, United Kingdom, Valencia, Dubai, Beijing, Hyderabad, Bengaluru and Mumbai.

3 Biometrics for Intelligence - Led Policing Tom Baker October 20, 2014 Biometrics & Biostatistics Conference Baltimore, Maryland Baker Associates International Consultants

4 This Could Be A Gang Anywhere

5 Biometrics From the Greek – Bio (life) & metric or metry (to measure)

6 Chaotic Morphogenesis From the Greek – Chaotic (disorder/confusion) Morpho (form/shape) & Genesis (origin)

7 Verification or Identification Verification (1:1) one-to-one Identification (1:N) one-to-many

8 Fingerprints – the oldest biometric 6000 BC – by Assyrians, Babylonians, Japanese, Chinese 6000 BC – by Assyrians, Babylonians, Japanese, Chinese 1858 – by English in India, Sir William Herschel 1858 – by English in India, Sir William Herschel 1890s – Alphonse Bertillon, Paris Police “Bertillonage” 1890s – Alphonse Bertillon, Paris Police “Bertillonage”

9 Fingerprints – the oldest biometric 1890s – Sir Francis Galton’s details (minutia) 1890s – Sir Francis Galton’s details (minutia) 1890s – Sir Edward R Henry (classification) 1890s – Sir Edward R Henry (classification) 1904 – Leavenworth and St. Louis PD, which leads to the foundation of the FBI files (1924), then 1904 – Leavenworth and St. Louis PD, which leads to the foundation of the FBI files (1924), then 1999 – The FBI’s IAFIS goes online 1999 – The FBI’s IAFIS goes online

10 AFIS- Automated Fingerprint Identification System IAFIS - FBI’s Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System

11 Fingerprints Enrollment Rolled Fingerprints – Ten Rolled Fingerprints – Ten rolled prints still are the “Gold Standard” Single-finger flats – Single-finger flats – used in verification (1:1) Slaps – Most often four Slaps – Most often four fingers together

12 Latents or Latent Prints Also known as “Markings” or “Tracings”; Valuable to Law enforcement, only possible with fingerprints.

13 Palm Prints Approached the same as fingerprints Approached the same as fingerprints 30% or more of latents at crime scenes are palms 30% or more of latents at crime scenes are palms

14 Palm Prints Already in NAFIS – Australia’s national system Already in NAFIS – Australia’s national system Part of IDENT1 in the UK Part of IDENT1 in the UK A key initiative in the FBI’s NGI - Next Generation Identification A key initiative in the FBI’s NGI - Next Generation Identification

15 Recognition From the Latin “again” and “to Know”

16 Facial Recognition Advantages Can be obtained covertly Can be obtained covertly Therefore potential for Law Enforcement identification (1:N). Therefore potential for Law Enforcement identification (1:N). Only biometric suitable for surveillance Only biometric suitable for surveillance Disadvantages Not nearly as accurate as fingerprints - Yet. Not nearly as accurate as fingerprints - Yet. Ideally, images need to be updated. Ideally, images need to be updated. Sensitive to variations in pose angle, illumination, facial expression Sensitive to variations in pose angle, illumination, facial expression

17 Different methods used in Facial Recognition Eigenfaces (spectral decomposition) Eigenfaces (spectral decomposition) EBGM (Elastic Bunch EBGM (Elastic Bunch Graph Matching) Support Vector Machines Support Vector Machines (texture mapping)

18 Different methods used in Facial Recognition LFA (Local Feature Analysis)- different areas of the face LFA (Local Feature Analysis)- different areas of the face Facial Thermography or thermal imaging Facial Thermography or thermal imaging Ear Shape – Shape of outer ear Ear Shape – Shape of outer ear Eigenhead – Shape of head (often in 3D) Eigenhead – Shape of head (often in 3D)

19 IRIS Recognition Iris – the colored ring surrounding the pupil Iris – the colored ring surrounding the pupil Like fingerprints, formed in the womb after conception- even twins have different iris characteristics Like fingerprints, formed in the womb after conception- even twins have different iris characteristics

20 From "HYMN" by Francis Giacobetti From the left of photo : Francis Crick (Biophysician, UK), Louise Bourgeois (Sculptor, USA), Garcia Marquez (Novelist, Columbia),Ieoh Ming Pei (Architect, USA), Woody Allen (Actor/Director, USA)

21 Verification or Identification Verification (1:1) one-to-one Identification (1:N) one-to-many

22 IRIS Recognition Works in identification (1:N) as well as Verification (1:1) Works in identification (1:N) as well as Verification (1:1) However, not yet useful in surveillance However, not yet useful in surveillance

23 Retinal Scan 1930s found that blood patterns in the back of the eye are unique to each individual 1930s found that blood patterns in the back of the eye are unique to each individual Small, internal to eye, thus difficult to image Small, internal to eye, thus difficult to image Difficult to fool (spoof) or to replicate Difficult to fool (spoof) or to replicate Used in high end security situations (1:1) Used in high end security situations (1:1) Very difficult to use Very difficult to use

24 Hand Geometry Used for access control (1:1) Used for access control (1:1) Hand Geometry only Hand Geometry only Not palm or fingerprints Not palm or fingerprints Limits – hands are not highly distinctive Limits – hands are not highly distinctive

25 Other Biometrics Skin Texture Skin Texture Vein Patten Vein Patten Finger Geometry Finger Geometry Ear shape Ear shape Speaker Speaker Keystroke Keystroke

26 Even More Remote Body Odor Body Odor Body Salinity Body Salinity Lips Lips Fingernails Fingernails Gait (Walk) Gait (Walk)

27 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid Not exactly a biometric – Requires a sample Not exactly a biometric – Requires a sample Not done in real time – Not yet Not done in real time – Not yet

28 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid Formed at conception – Identical twins have the same Formed at conception – Identical twins have the same Very accurate, but requires an expert Very accurate, but requires an expert NAFIS (Australian System) maintains DNA files along side fingerprint and palm files NAFIS (Australian System) maintains DNA files along side fingerprint and palm files

29 Testing Organizations NIST - National Institute of Standards and Technology – Part of US Commerce Department – has tested at FBI IAFIS NIST - National Institute of Standards and Technology – Part of US Commerce Department – has tested at FBI IAFIS NBSP – National Biometric Security Project – independent non-profit; an Underwriter’s Laboratory for biometrics NBSP – National Biometric Security Project – independent non-profit; an Underwriter’s Laboratory for biometrics TNO TPD – Part of the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research TNO TPD – Part of the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research

30 Privacy Considerations OECD Guidelines –Protection of Privacy and Trans-border Flow of Personal Data Guidelines - issued on September 23, 1980 OECD Guidelines –Protection of Privacy and Trans-border Flow of Personal Data Guidelines - issued on September 23, 1980 EU Data Protection Directive (95/46/EC) – Passed by the Parliament and Council on October 24, 1998 – the “Privacy Directive” EU Data Protection Directive (95/46/EC) – Passed by the Parliament and Council on October 24, 1998 – the “Privacy Directive” U.K. Data Protection Act of 1998 U.K. Data Protection Act of 1998 USA – The 4 th, 5 th, and 14 th Amendments USA – The 4 th, 5 th, and 14 th Amendments

31 Trends Facial – increased investigative use Facial – increased investigative use Palms - increased investigative use and inclusion in national AFISs Palms - increased investigative use and inclusion in national AFISs Multi-modal – two or more biometrics in same application - inclusion in national AFISs Multi-modal – two or more biometrics in same application - inclusion in national AFISs Need for increased international cooperation and exchange (or cross searching) Need for increased international cooperation and exchange (or cross searching)

32

33 Questions / Contact Tom Baker Tom Baker 1-703-470-0090 1-703-470-0090 BakeAssociates@aol.com BakeAssociates@aol.com BakeAssociates@aol.com


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