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Presentation on theme: "+ CULTURAL FRAMEWORK + REFRESH ON FORMAL FRAMEWORK."— Presentation transcript:


2 + Refresh on Formal Framework This Framework is used when the viewer analyses the formal elements of an artwork and how they contribute to the meanings and messages of the work. This is the most important Framework and it provides links between the other Frameworks. The Formal Framework can be broken into different aspects of interpretation: Visual Analysis Technique Style Symbolism and Metaphors

3 + Visual Analysis A visual analysis involves analysing the elements and principles of art and how they contribute to the meanings and messages of the artwork: The elements are the ingredients and the principles are how these ingredients can be put together in an artwork. The combination of the design elements and design principles in an artwork is also called the composition. An artist may choose certain design elements and combine them with the principles to express their ideas. design elements: line, shape, colour, tone, texture and form; contemporary artworks can also have additional elements such as sound, light, time and space design principles: balance, focal point, unity (including harmony), variety, rhythm and space

4 + Techniques Techniques are the ways in which the artist uses materials to create an artwork. An in- depth study of technique can include the artist’s studio, the location of their work and the roles of people who assist in the creation of an artwork. You also must consider the type of artwork the artist is creating. Artists will use different techniques in painting, photography, printmaking, sculpture, three-dimensional works, performance works, and installations. Questions to ask when analysing techniques in an artwork: What material/s has the artist used? How has the artist applied the material/s? What effects have been created by using these techniques? What processes has the artist used to create the work? What type of emotion or symbolism was the artist trying to portray with their techniques?

5 + Style The style of the artwork is the end result, or objective, behind everything that the artist does with materials and techniques; the formal and expressive qualities of a completed artwork. The qualities, processes or concept of the artwork may relate to other images or artworks made during the same period of time. Style can communicate the political, religious and social values of an artwork. The reason for the artist choosing certain materials and techniques relates to the purpose of the artwork. What processes has the artist used to create the work? What has influenced the production of the artwork? Is there an idea behind the work? Does the work appear representational or non-representational? Is it romantic? Is it a form of high art? Abstract? Realistic? Photojournalistic? Was it made as a narrative, i.e. was it designed to tell a story? What art movement does the image come from? Are there clues in the work that lead you to deduce this? What has the artist done with the techniques to achieve a certain style? For example, it may be realistic, abstract or expressionistic and the artist has used specific techniques to create that style. How does the style of the artwork represent the period of time in which the artist was living? In what ways do the stylistic qualities affect your understanding of the work’s meaning? Does it place the work within a historical or cultural context or does it reflect the artist’s personal style?

6 + Metaphors and Symbolism Artists and artworks throughout different times and cultures have displayed symbols in different ways. The artist may use the design elements and principles in a certain manner or the subject matter of the work may represent an idea. Some artists deliberately include visual symbols in their work to give the viewer a clue to what the meaning of the artwork may be. What art elements and principles has the artist used as symbols? Describe what these are and the ideas they represent. How has the composition of the artwork been arranged to give symbolic meaning? What images or objects in the artwork are symbolic? Is the artist’s choice of medium symbolic? Why has the artist selected a particular artform to create their work? Are the techniques the artist has used symbolic? Describe how the artist has used the techniques to suggest a particular idea. Is the style of the artwork symbolic? If the artwork comes from a particular period of art or is created in a particular style, it may convey a particular idea of the time, context and culture in which it was produced.


8 + Cultural Framework The Cultural Framework can be used to interpret the influences of the time and place in which an artwork has been produced. The viewer can also interpret the purpose of the work and the cultural, historical, political, religious and social setting in which it was made. This is often referred to the ‘Context’ of the artwork. Most artworks are born out of the feelings the artist has for the time in which the work was produced or the purpose behind it.

9 + Applying the Cultural Framework Why did the artist produce this artwork? Was it for a festival or event, to make a political statement, to express an idea about their culture or to record a particular event? What aspects of the artwork reflect the culture in which it was made? This might be the subject matter of the artwork, the use of techniques or the ideas that the artist is expressing. How does the social, political or religious context in which the artwork was made contribute to its meaning? Investigate the background of history or culture in which the artwork was made to see if you can gain evidence about the artwork. Is there evidence of cultural symbolism in the work? Cultural symbolism could include the representation of subject matter, the use of techniques in the artwork, the choice of design elements and principles or the style of the artwork. How does this reflect the ideas behind the work? Do the materials, techniques and processes selected and used by the artist reflect anything about the values of the culture in which the artwork was produced? Does the work reflect the gender values of the social context in which it was produced? If the work is a historical example, how does this compare with the gender values of today? Are the ideas of the artwork a reflection of the gender of the artist? How do male and female artists explore different ideas in their work? If the work is now in a different context and location to when it was produced, such as a gallery or museum, how does this location affect the interpretation of the work?

10 + …Let’s apply the Cultural Framework Arnolfini Portrait Artist: Jan van Eyck Year:1434 Dimensions: 82 x 60cm

11 + …Let’s apply the Cultural Framework

12 + Banksy Israeli Wall Art Work In typical graffiti fashion, the work was discovered by passersby after the famous artist has left the scene. Bansky used the wall to paint his sometimes subversive artwork in 2005. The Palestinian art collection, a total of 9 pieces, was cataloged before counter graffiti artists began painting over the work. This made it difficult to account for all nine pieces by name and date of completion. Some of the paintings were never given official names but are merely described by the art content itself. Some want to include additional paintings on nearby Palestinian and Israeli walls and buildings as part of Banksy's Palestinian work. Whether there are simply nine or more, all serve the point of bringing notice to the often less than popular wall and its plight. 1) Armored Dove of Peace: Although located on a building in Bethlehem, this piece of work is often included as part of the nine. This piece of urban art is accredited to Banksy and perhaps several other street artists. The dove, complete with an armored vest and bull's- eye heart target, makes a tongue-in-cheek comment about peace. What better way to display a political comment about the unstable peace in the area than to depict the bearer of peace "the dove "in a precarious situation?


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