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© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Blood Vessels: The Vascular System Transport blood to the tissues and back Carry blood away from the heart Arteries Arterioles Exchanges between tissues and blood Capillary beds Return blood toward the heart Venules Veins
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.10a Artery (a) Vein
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Blood Vessels: Microscopic Anatomy Three layers (tunics) Tunic intima Endothelium Tunic media Smooth muscle Controlled by sympathetic nervous system Tunic externa Mostly fibrous connective tissue
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Structural Differences Among Blood Vessels Arteries have a thicker tunica media than veins Capillaries are only one cell layer (tunica intima) to allow for exchanges between blood and tissue Veins have a thinner tunica media than arteries Veins also have valves to prevent backflow of blood Lumen of veins are larger than arteries
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.10b Valve Tunica intima Loose connective tissue Endothelium Internal elastic lamina Tunica media Smooth muscle Elastic fibers External elastic lamina Tunica externa Collagen fibers Arteriole Venule Capillary network Basement membrane Endothelial cells Capillary (b) Lumen Vein Lumen Artery
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Movement of Blood Through Vessels Most arterial blood is pumped by the heart Veins use the milking action of muscles to help move blood
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Venous Aids for the Return of Blood to the Heart Veins: Have a thinner tunica media Operate under low pressure Have a larger lumen than arteries To assist in the movement of blood back to the heart: Larger veins have valves to prevent backflow Skeletal muscle “milks” blood in veins toward the heart
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.11 Valve (open) Contracted skeletal muscle Valve (closed) Vein Direction of blood flow
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Capillary Beds Capillary beds consist of two types of vessels Vascular shunt—vessel directly connecting an arteriole to a venule True capillaries—exchange vessels Oxygen and nutrients cross to cells Carbon dioxide and metabolic waste products cross into blood
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.12a True capillaries (a) Sphincters open; blood flows through true capillaries. Vascular shunt Precapillary sphincters Terminal arteriole Postcapillary venule
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.12b
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Arteries of System Circulation Aorta Largest artery in the body Leaves from the left ventricle of the heart Regions Ascending aorta—leaves the left ventricle Aortic arch—arches to the left Thoracic aorta—travels downward through the thorax Abdominal aorta—passes through the diaphragm into the abdominopelvic cavity
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Arteries of System Circulation Arterial branches of the ascending aorta Right and left coronary arteries serve the heart
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Arteries of Systemic Circulation Arterial branches of the aortia arch (BCS) Brachiocephalic trunk splits into the Right common carotid artery Right subclavian artery Left common carotid artery Which splits into the Left internal and external carotid arteries Subclavian artery branches into the Vertebral, Costocervical and Thyrocervical
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Arteries of Systemic Circulation The subclavian artery becomes the axillary artery Which becomes the brachial artery Which becomes the radial and ulnar arteries
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Arteries of Systemic Circulation Arterial branches of the thoracic aorta Intercostal arteries supply the muscles of the thorax wall
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Arteries of Systemic Circulation Arterial branches of the abdominal aorta Celiac trunk is the first branch of the abdominal aorta. Three branches are Hepatic artery (liver) Gastric artery (stomach) Splenic artery (spleen) Superior mesenteric artery supplies most of the small intestine and first half of the large intestine
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Arteries of Systemic Circulation Arterial branches of the abdominal aorta Left and right adrenolumber arteries (adrenal gland) Left and right renal arteries (kidney) Left and right gonadal arteries Ovarian arteries Testicular arteries Lumbar arteries serve muscles of the abdomen and trunk
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Arteries of Systemic Circulation Inferior mesenteric artery serves the second half of the large intestine Left and right iliac arteries are the final branches of the aorta Internal iliac arteries serve the pelvic organs External iliac arteries enter the thigh femoral artery popliteal artery anterior and posterior tibial arteries
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.13 Arteries of the head and trunk Internal carotid artery External carotid artery Common carotid arteries Vertebral artery Subclavian artery Brachiocephalic trunk Aortic arch Ascending aorta Coronary artery Thoracic aorta (above diaphragm) Celiac trunk Abdominal aorta Superior mesenteric artery Renal artery Gonadal artery Inferior mesenteric artery Internal iliac artery Arteries that supply the upper limb Subclavian artery Axillary artery Brachial artery Radial artery Ulnar artery Deep palmar arch Superficial palmar arch Digital arteries Arteries that supply the lower limb Common iliac artery External iliac artery Femoral artery Popliteal artery Anterior tibial artery Posterior tibial artery Dorsalis pedis artery Arcuate artery
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Veins of Systemic Circulation Superior and inferior vena cava enter the right atrium of the heart Superior vena cava drains the head and arms Inferior vena cava drains the lower body
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Veins of Systemic Circulation Veins draining into the superior vena cava Radial and ulnar veins brachial vein axillary vein Subclavian vein receives Venous blood from the arm via the axillary vein Venous blood from skin and muscles via external jugular vein
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Veins of Systemic Circulation Vertebral vein drains the posterior part of the head Internal jugular vein drains the brain
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Veins of Systemic Circulation Left and right brachiocephalic veins receive venous blood from the Subclavian veins Vertebral veins Internal jugular veins Brachiocephalic veins join to form the superior vena cava right atrium of heart Azygous vein drains the thorax
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Veins of Systemic Circulation Veins draining into the inferior vena cava Anterior and posterior tibial veins and fibial veins drain the legs Posterior tibial vein popliteal vein femoral vein external iliac vein Great saphenous veins (longest veins of the body) receive superficial drainage of the legs Each common iliac vein (left and right) is formed by the union of the internal and external iliac vein on its own side
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Veins of Systemic Circulation Gonadal vein drains the ovaries in females and testies in males Gonadal veins empties into the renal veins Left and right renal veins drain the kidneys
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Veins of Systemic Circulation Hepatic portal vein drains the digestive organs and travels through the liver before it enters systemic circulation Left and right hepatic veins drain the liver
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Hepatic Portal Circulation Veins of hepatic portal circulation drain Digestive organs Spleen Pancreas Hepatic portal vein carries this blood to the liver Liver helps maintain proper glucose, fat, and protein concentrations in blood
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Hepatic Portal Circulation Major vessels of hepatic portal circulation Inferior and superior mesenteric veins Splenic vein Left gastric vein
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.17 Arterial blood Stomach and intestine Nutrients and toxins absorbed Hepatic portal vein First capillary bed Second capillary bed (liver sinusoids) Liver cells (hepatocytes) Nutrients and toxins leave Inferior vena cava Venous blood Hepatic vein Liver Hepatic portal system
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.18 Inferior vena cava (not part of hepatic portal system) Gastric veins Spleen Stomach Splenic vein Inferior mesenteric vein Superior mesenteric vein Large intestine Small intestine Hepatic portal vein Liver
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.14 Veins of the head and trunk Dural venous sinuses External jugular vein Vertebral vein Internal jugular vein Superior vena cava Great cardiac vein Hepatic veins Splenic vein Hepatic portal vein Renal vein Superior mesenteric vein Inferior mesenteric vein Inferior vena cava Common iliac vein Internal iliac vein Veins that drain the upper limb Subclavian vein Axillary vein Cephalic vein Brachial vein Basilic vein Median cubital vein Ulnar vein Radial vein Digital veins Veins that drain the lower limb External iliac vein Femoral vein Great saphenous vein Popliteal vein Posterior tibial vein Anterior tibial vein Small saphenous vein Dorsal venous arch Dorsal metatarsal veins Right and left brachiocephalic veins
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Fetal Circulation Fetus receives exchanges of gases, nutrients, and wastes through the placenta Umbilical cord contains three vessels Umbilical vein—carries blood rich in nutrients and oxygen to the fetus Umbilical arteries (2)—carry carbon dioxide and debris-laden blood from fetus to placenta
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.16 Superior vena cava Foramen ovale Inferior vena cava Hepatic vein Ductus venosus Hepatic portal vein Umbilical vein Fetal umbilicus Umbilical cord Umbilical arteries Ductus arteriosus Pulmonary artery Pulmonary veins Inferior vena cava Aorta Common iliac artery External iliac artery Internal iliac artery Urinary bladder Placenta KEY: High oxygenation Moderate oxygenation Low oxygenation Very low oxygenation
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Fetal Circulation Blood flow bypasses the liver through the ductus venosus and enters the inferior vena cava right atrium of heart Blood flow bypasses the lungs Blood entering right atrium is shunted directly into the left atrium through the foramen ovale Ductus arteriosus connects the aorta and pulmonary trunk (becomes ligamentum arteriosum at birth)
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