Presentation on theme: "China had a strong central government under Song and Tang dynasties, China’s culture influenced neighboring peoples. Chinese made amazing advances in technology,"— Presentation transcript:
China had a strong central government under Song and Tang dynasties, China’s culture influenced neighboring peoples. Chinese made amazing advances in technology, inventing paper, printing and gunpowder. In West Africa, the Soninke people were building the great trading empire of Ghana. Across the Atlantic, in the Americas, the Mayas had cleared rain forests and build cities dominated by towering towels. Closer to Western Europe, the Byzantine Empire was generally prosperous and united. In the 1050s, the Seljuk Turks invaded the Byzantine Empire. The Turks had migrated from Central Asia into the Middle East, where they converted to Islam.
Only the first crusade came close to achieving its goals. The Crusaded continued to battle on and off for almost 200 years. They divided their captured lands into 4 small states. On the third crusade, Europeans tried but failed to retake Jerusalem. After negotiating, though, Saladin did re-open the holy city to Christian pilgrims. Europeans also mounted crusades against other Muslim lands, especially in North Africa, in which all ended in defeat. During the fourth crusade, the crusaders were diverted from fighting Muslims to fighting Christians.
The Economic Expansion. The crusaders were the ones that increased trade by introducing fabrics, spices, and perfumes from the Middle East to Europe. Our words sugar, cotton, and rice, are borrowed from Arabic, show the range of trade goods involved. The crusaders further encouraged the growth of a money economy in order to finance a journey to the Holy Land. Increased power for monarchs The crusades helped to increase the power of feudal monarchs. Rulers won rights to levy, or collect, taxes in order to support the crusades.
In 1469, Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon. Their marriage opened the way for a unified state. Using their combining forces, the 2 monarchs made a final push against the Muslim stronghold Granada, but in 1492, Granada fell and the Reconquista was complete. Under Muslim rule, Spain had enjoyed a tradition of religious toleration, a policy of allowing people to worship as they choose. Isabella ended this policy of toleration because Christians, Jews, and Muslims lived there in relative peace. With the support of the Inquisition, a church court set up a try people accused of heresy, Isabella launched a brutal crusade against Jews and Muslims. The queen achieved religious unity but at a high price. Over 150,000 people fled to Spain, in which many were skilled, educated people who had contributed much to Spain’s economy and culture.