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Crusades.  During the Middle Ages the Catholic Church had risen in power.  After the fall of Rome, the Eastern portion of the Empire became known as.

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Presentation on theme: "Crusades.  During the Middle Ages the Catholic Church had risen in power.  After the fall of Rome, the Eastern portion of the Empire became known as."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crusades

2  During the Middle Ages the Catholic Church had risen in power.  After the fall of Rome, the Eastern portion of the Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire


4 1. What changed in the relationship between Muslims and Christians which prompted the call for the First Crusade? Jerusalem was a holy land for the Christians because it was where Jesus died and each year many came to visit (pilgrimages). Jerusalem was also holy for Muslims because Mohammed built the Al-Asqa Mosque there. Jerusalem was holy to the Jews because it was their traditional national and religious capital and the home of the temple. Previously, the Umayyad and the Abbasid Muslim empires who controlled Jerusalem, were relaxed about Christians living in and travelling to Jerusalem on pilgrimages. BUT:  When the Seljuk Turks (Muslims) controlled the land, they began not allowing visitors and started treating Christians badly.


6  1093- Byzantine Emperor Alexius wanted help to save Constantinople from Turks  asks Church  It was believed that the increase in Muslim power would threaten the Byzantine Capital of Constantinople. 2. When was the First Crusade?  1095- Pope Urban II issues a call for a “holy” war or Crusade to capture the Holy land (Palestine) back from Muslims.

7 3. What reason did Pope Urban give people to encourage them to take part in the First Crusade?  Pope assured that those that die in Crusade would have a place in Heaven.  People were keen to take the opportunity to earn time off purgatory. 4. What was his real motivation?  The Pope hoped that this would provide the opportunity for him to gain power in the Eastern Orthodox church as well and unite all of the Christians.

8 1.What can you see? 2.Where do you think this man is going? 3.What words would you use to describe this man? 4.What impression do you get from the picture? 5.How would you feel if this was you? 6.What do you think it would be like to go on a Crusade?

9 5. Why did people volunteer for the First Crusade?  To the Crusaders, they were going to work to protect Christ and his kingdom. They believed that they were doing God’s will by going on the Crusades and that He would bless them for it.


11  The word “crusade” comes from the Spanish cruzade which means “marked with the cross”.  Crusaders wore red crosses on their chests to symbolize their purpose.


13  Urban had appointed August 1096 as the time of departure, but many of the impatient peasants, who were among the first recruits, could not wait.  Led by such personalities as Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless, they set out in three groups and quickly devolved into disorder, hunger, and ill-discipline.  They were all but annihilated by a force of Turks at Nicea. “Alexius Comnenus, Emperor of the East, receives Peter the Hermit at Constantinople, August 1096” by Gillot Saint-Evre

14  On July 15 the Crusaders went over the city walls and unleashed complete carnage.  Blood reportedly ran knee-deep  70,000 Muslims were slaughtered.  Jews were herded into a synagogue and burned alive.

15  Crusaders capture Jerusalem  1187- Jerusalem falls back to Muslim rule

16 6. Who were the important leaders involved in the Third Crusade?  Led by Richard the Lionhearted- King of England and Philip of France.  Despite war, they eventually they came to a truce with Saladin, leader of Muslims  Christians (unarmed) would be allowed in city.

17 7. How did the Fourth Crusade result in the ultimate fall of Constantinople in 1453?  The crusaders ordered a great fleet of ships from the Venetians in order to travel to the Holy Land.  Far fewer crusaders actually arrived than anticipated, which meant that they could not pay for the ships.  The Venetians asked the crusaders to pay them back by attacking the Christian city of Zara which used to be under Venetian control.  The Pope excommunicated the crusaders and the Venetians  The crusaders were then invited to Constantinople by Alexius III in order to help him become emperor. He said that he would then reward them.  The crusaders helped Alexius, but before he could pay them, he lost his position.  The crusaders then attacked Constantinople in 1204 AD, sacked the city and stole valuable items.  The fourth crusade doomed the Byzantine Empire, which never really recovered. Constantinople, a shadow of its former self, was conquered by the Turks in 1453.


19  The next 4 were unsuccessful in recapturing city.  But there were other crusades….


21  Showed power of Church  Increased trading between East and West  will lead to massive Cultural Diffusion  Muslim bitterness and hatred toward Christians  Bitterness and an increased divide between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church  Constantinople (Istanbul) eventually fell to Turks as a result of the weakening of their position from the attack of the Fourth Crusade.

22  Crash Course World History video: The Crusades – Pilgrimage or Holy war? John Green  Western Society in the Church in the Middle Ages. R. W. Southern (1970).  The images on this PowerPoint were used from a number of TES PowerPoints.

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