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Chapter 2: Earth as a SystemSTUDY NOTES
Chapter 2 Section 1: Earth: A Unique Planet
1. Earth’s circumference is about 40,000 km, and its shape is an ________ ___________.oblate spheroid
2. According to the law of gravitation, the force of attraction between two objects depends on the masses of the objects and the __________ between them. distance
3. The lower boundary of Earth’s crust is called the ________.Moho
4. The solid, plastic layer of the mantle is called the _________.asthenosphere
5.The force of attraction that exists among all matter in the universe is called _________.gravity
6. The mesosphere is the strong, lower part of the _______ between the asthenosphere and the outer core. mantle
7. The _______ is the thin and solid outer most layer of the Earth above the mantlecrust
8.The lithosphere is the solid, outer layer of Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the ________. mantle
9. The ________ is the central part of Earth below the mantle.core
10. The _______ is the layer of rock between Earth’s crust and core.mantle
Chapter 2 Section 2: Energy in the Earth System
1. Evaporation, condensation, and precipitation are part of the _____ _______.water cycle
2. Plants capture and transfer solar energy in a process called ___________.photosynthesis
3. Because Earth’s interior is warmer than its surface layers, hot materials move toward the surface in a process called ________. Convection
4. The largest ecosystem on Earth is the ________.biosphere
5. In general, ecosystems react to change by _____ _______.restoring balance
6. The transfer of energy throughout an ecosystem begins when plants capture solar _____ through photosynthesis. energy
7. A community of organisms and their abiotic environment is called an ___________.ecosystem
8. The _____ is the part of Earth where life exists.biosphere
9. The ____ is a mixture of ____ that surrounds a planet or moon.atmosphere gases
10. The _____ is the portion of Earth that is water.hydrosphere
11. The _____ is the mostly solid, rocky part of Earth.geosphere
12. An open system is a system in which both matter and energy are _____ with the surroundings.exchanged
Chapter 2 Section 1 green book: The Cycles of Matter
1. All organic molecules contain __________.carbon
2. Bacteria in soil change nitrogen gas into other forms in a process called ____ ______.nitrogen fixation
3. Carbon is stored as a type of rock called ______ in the______.carbonate geosphere
4. Carbon moves between the environment and living things in the _______ _______.carbon cycle
5. ______ is transferred between systems, but it cannot be created or destroyed, according to the _____ law of thermodynamics. Energy first
6. Groundwater is an important part of the _______ cycle.
7. In a cycle of matter, matter moves between the environment and _____ things.living
9. Most animals get the carbon they need by ______ plants.eating
10. Organisms need _______ to build proteins for DNA.nitrogen
11. _________ is when plants use carbon dioxide to make sugars.Photosynthesis
12. The sun, internal convection, and gravity are important sources of ________ in the Earth system.energy
13. Transpiration is one part of the _______ cycle.water
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