Presentation on theme: "Energy Transformations"— Presentation transcript:
1 Energy Transformations EQ: What is energy, and how can it be transformed?
2 Energy transfersSometimes, one form of energy needs to be transformed into another to get work done.A change from one form to another is called an energy transformation.
3 Transformations between potential and kinetic energy One of the most common energy transformations is the transformation between potential energy and kinetic energy.In waterfalls such as Niagara Falls, potential energy is transformed to kinetic energy.The water at the top of the falls has gravitational potential energy.As the water plunges, its velocity increases. Its potential energy becomes kinetic energy.Velocity: speed in a given direction (north, south, east, west, up, down, left, right, etc)
4 Energy transformation in a pendulum In a pendulum, a continuous transformation between kinetic and potential energy takes place.
5 Energy transformation in a pendulum At the highest point in its swing, the pendulum has no movement, so it only has gravitational potential energy.
6 Energy Transformation in a pendulum As it swings downward it speeds upIt’s potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy.It has it’s maximum amount of kinetic energy at the lowest point of its swingThis pattern of energy transformation continues until all of the pendulum’s kinetic energy transforms into potential energy.
7 Conservation of energy If a top is set into motion, will the top remain spinning forever?No, it will not.Why? What happens to the energy?Is it destroyed?Again, the answer is no.Why?T-P-S
8 The Law of conservation of energy The law of conservation of energy states that when one form of energy is transformed to another, no energy is destroyed in the process.According to the law of conservation of energy, energy cannot be created or destroyed.The total amount of energy is the same before and after any transformation.If you add up all the new forms of energy after a transformation, all of the original energy will be accounted for.
9 Energy and Friction So what happened to the energy in the top? T-P-S As the top spun, it encountered friction with the floor and friction from the air.
10 Energy and frictionWhenever a moving object experiences friction, some of its kinetic energy is transformed into thermal energy.The top slows down eventually and falls, but the energy is not destroyed, but changed.
11 Assessment PromptCreate collaborative poster illustrating the Law of Conservation of Energy as it relates to kinetic and potential energy.
12 Single Transformations Sometimes, one form of energy needs to be transformed into another to get work done.Example: toasterStarts with electricalTransforms to thermal.Original start
13 Energy Transformations Most forms of energy can be transformed into other forms.McTeen/CEMENTA change from one form to another is called an energy transformation.Some energy transformations involve single transformations, and others involve many transformations#2
14 Single transformations Food digestionStarts: chemicalTransforms: mechanicalCell phoneStarts: electricalTransforms: electromagnetic energy to contact with other cellphones.#3
15 Multiple transformations Often, a series of energy transformations is needed to do work.For example, the mechanical energy used to strike a match:Transforms to thermal energy. The thermal energy causes the particles in the match to releaseWhich become stored chemical energy, which is transformed toThermal energy andThe electromagnetic energy you see as light.#4
16 Multiple transformations In a car engine, another series of energy conversions occurs.Electrical energy produces a spark.The thermal energy of the spark releases chemical energy in the fuel.The fuel’s chemical energy in turn becomes thermal energy.Thermal energy is converted to mechanical energy used to move the car, andto electrical energy to produce more sparks.
17 Einstein’s theory of relativity In 1915, Albert Einstein published the theory of relativity.In it, he stated (among other things), that sometimes energy can be created by destroying matter!Example:Burning a log in a fireplace (heat and electromagnetic created)