# Wave Information. 1.A wave is an oscillation or back and forth OR up and down movement. 2. Waves that travel through matter are called mechanical waves.

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Wave Information

1.A wave is an oscillation or back and forth OR up and down movement. 2. Waves that travel through matter are called mechanical waves 3. Waves that travel through empty space are called electromagnetic waves 4. The amplitude is the distance a wave oscillates or moves from its resting position 5. Wavelength is the distance from any point on one wave to the same point on an adjacent wave or the wave next to it

6. Frequency is the number of oscillations per second 6a. The greater the number of oscillations per second, the higher the frequency. 6b. The higher the frequency, the more energy carried by the wave 7. Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz) 7a. One hertz is equal to one wave per second 8. Wave speed is the distance a wave travels in a given amount of time.

9. A transverse wave is a type of wave that is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels. 10. The peak or highest point of a transverse wave is the crest. 11. The valley or lowest point, between two crests is the trough.

Light 13. Light is a type of energy produced by the vibration of electrically charged particles. 14. Light travels in straight lines called rays. 15. Light spreads out in all directions from its source. 16. The speed of light is 186,282 miles per second 17. Light can travel in a vacuum which is empty space OR through matter.

18. When light passes through matter it is called transmission. 18. When light passes through matter it is called transmission. 19. Matter that allows ALL light to pass through easily are called transparent. 20. Matter that allows SOME light to pass through is called translucent. (waxed paper is an example) 21. Opaque matter does not allow any light to pass through.

22. Light is an electromagnetic wave. 22. Light is an electromagnetic wave. 23. The only part of the electromagnetic spectrum that you can see is visible light. 24. Visible light includes all colors of the rainbow. 25. The electromagnetic spectrum is all of electromagnetic waves.

26. The electromagnetic spectrum includes these waves: a. radio waves b. microwaves c. Infrared waves d. visible light e. ultraviolet light (primarily from sunlight) f. X ray g. gamma rays

27. When light passes from one medium to another (air to water for example) it changes direction slightly. 28. This change in direction is called refraction. 29. Refraction occurs because light travels at different speeds through different materials. 30. Refraction is the bending of waves around an obstacle 31. Interference is when 2 waves are at the same place and at same time and they combine to produce a single wave.

32. Reflection is a process in which light bounces back off the surface it is shone on. 33. The law of Reflection states that light will always be reflected by a surface at the same angle at which it hits the surface. 34. Reflection from a smooth surface is called specular reflection.

35. Reflection of light from a rough surface is called diffuse reflection. 36. Diffraction is the bending of light waves when it can’t pass through matter (prism) 37. Reflection, refraction, interference & diffraction are all wave interactions.

38. Some light energy is absorbed by matter. When light energy is absorbed it is converted or changed to another forma of energy such as thermal energy. 39. Objects get their color from selective absorption. 40. Red apples look red because they absorb all colors except red. The red light gets reflected to your eyes 41. A black object looks black because it absorbs ALL colors of light and reflects NONE 41. A black object looks black because it absorbs ALL colors of light and reflects NONE.

42. Sound is produced when an object vibrates 43. A vibration is movement that follows the same path repeatedly. 44. Sound waves travel in all directions away from their source. 45. Sound waves are longitudinal waves 46. Sound MUST have a medium or matter to travel through 47. Sound travels at different speeds through different materials.

48. Usually, sound travels faster through solids than through liquids. 49. Usually then, sound travels faster through liquids than through gases. 50. Sound waves also travel faster through warmer medium than through a cooler medium. 51. Sound travels much more slowly than light. That is why you see lightning before you hear the rumble of thunder.

52. Amplitude is the distance a wave oscillates from its resting position 53. The greater the amplitude of a sound wave the louder the sound. 54. Loudness is measured in units called decibels (dB) 55. Frequency is the number of waves produced in a given time.

56. The frequency of a sound wave determines its pitch or how high or low the sound is 57. The higher the frequency of a sound wave the higher the pitch. 58. Loudness and pitch are NOT related. A high-pitched sound can be soft and a low-pitched sound can be loud

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