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Kingdom Protista- Chapter 20

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1 Kingdom Protista- Chapter 20

2 What is a Protist? Protists are eukaryotes that are not members of the Plant, Animal, or Fungi kingdoms

3 Basic Characteristics of the Kingdom Protista
1. Eukaryotic- has a nucleus 2. Unicellular -(except some algae are multicellular) 3. Some have cell walls 4. Autotrophic or heterotrophic

4 Classification of Protists
Protists are separated into three groups according to how they get nutrients

5 Plant-like Protists All are autotrophic-meaning they can make their own food Examples: Euglena Dinoflagellates Algae Volvox

6 Euglena Euglena have chloroplasts, move using a flagella
Unique because they are both heterotrophic and autotrophic

7 Euglena Ingest food through the gullet Chloroplast
Carbohydrate storage bodies Gullet Pellicle Contractile vacuole Flagella Eyespot Nucleus Ingest food through the gullet

8 Dinoflagellates Two flagella that cause it to spin like a top
Warm surface waters cause “blooms” Red tide can paralyze humans

9 Red Tide- a population boom of dinoflagellates that can span hundreds of miles
- if breathed can cause respiratory failure -if you ate contaminated shell-fish it could lead to death- can lead to massive fish kills

10 Diatoms Produce cell walls rich in silica (Si – the main ingredient in glass)

11 Algae Red, Green, and Brown forms
Extracts like pectin & agar are used to thicken jelly and yogurt. The extract carrageenan is used to thicken ice cream, toothpaste, inks, paints, and cosmetics. Kelp- provides habitat – also used for human food

12 GREEN ALGAE Volvox (left), Spirogyra (right)
Colonies of Individual Cells

13 Red Algae – Antithamnion plumula

14 Red algae- Porphyra is used to wrap sushi

15 Brown Algae (largest algae) Kelp forest

16 Animal-like Protists Are all heterotrophs Classified by how they move.
Examples: Amoeba Paramecium Plasmodium Arcella gibbosa, a shelled amoeba

17 Amoeba Moves using pseudopods- “false feet”- cytoplasmic projections
Found in freshwater Moves using pseudopods- “false feet”- cytoplasmic projections

18 They also use pseudopods for feeding
Paramecium Amoeba Pseudopod Food Vacuole Pseudopod

19 Move using Cilia - hair-like projections
Paramecium Move using Cilia - hair-like projections Have contractile vacuoles to pump out freshwater diffusing in due to osmosis.

20 Paramecium- ingest food through oral groove

21 Fungi-like Protists All are external heterotrophs. Act as decomposers
Examples: Water Molds Slime Molds Phytophthora infestans

22 Fungi-like Protists- examples
Water molds- thrive on dead or decaying organic matter in water and are plant parasites on land.

23 Fungi-like Protists- examples
Slime molds are fungus like protists that play key roles in recycling organic material

24 Slime molds upclose Water and Slime molds are not in the Kingdom Fungi because their cell walls are made up of cellulose not chitin.

MALARIA – Plasmodium Causes severe chills, fever, sweating, confusion, and great thirst. Spread from person to person by the anopheles mosquito.

26 Amoebic dysentery Entamoeba histolytica
Amoebas feed on intestinal lining, causing bloody diarrhea. Contaminated food or water.

27 Brain-eating amoeba Naegleria fowleri – causes infection of the brain and is 98% fatal. found in natural freshwater bodies of water such as lakes, and ponds that have especially warm temperatures, and swimming pools with insufficient chlorination

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