Sex Hormones Functions of sex hormones include: Sex hormones are produced from several endocrine glands: Hypothalamus produces hormones that control what the pituitary releases (releasing and inhibiting hormones) Pituitary gland produces LH and FSH Adrenal (cortex) produces androgens Testes produce testosterone Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone 5
Determined by the fertilizing sperm at the time of conception Conception - combining of 23 pairs of chromosomes Of the 23 pairs, one pair are called sex chromosomes Eggs carry an X sex chromosome Sperm can carry either an X or Y sex chromosome XX provides the blueprint to produce a female; XY provides the blueprint to produce a male (biological sex) 6
Physical changes begins around 8-13 with breast development and rapid body growth between 9 and 15. The 4 Phases of the Menstrual Cycle Menses Days 1-5 Estrogenic phase Days 6-13 Ovulation phase Day 14 Progestational phase Days 15-27 7
10 – 30 seconds after stimuli = vaginal lubrication Tenting = body of the uterus begins to ascend Clitoris enlarges & labia minora swell
Continued tenting Vaginal walls swell Upper part of vagina expands
Contractions in uterus Strong muscular contractions in vagina
If no effective stimuli is present system returns to normal Uterus lowers Vagina returns to normal size etc.
Vasocongestion causes erection of penis Skin of scrotum tenses and causes testes to elevate
Pre-ejaculatory emission from Cowper’s gland Prostate gland, glans and testes enlarge
Contractions in penis, urethra, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, cause semen to be expelled
Vasocongestion ebbs System returns to normal
Women Menopause = Ovaries gradually cease functioning Decreasing estrogen levels Increased risk of disease Men Gradual decrease of testosterone Loss of energy/sex drive/stamina 21
Biological conditions affecting women: Vaginitis Vaginismus Endometriosis Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) 50-75% of PID cases are caused by STDs Biological conditions affecting men: Prostatitis (acute vs. chronic) Testicular cancer Most common in men in their twenties and thirties 22
Common sexual dysfunctions Men – Erectile dysfunction Premature ejaculation Delayed ejaculation Women – orgasmic dysfunction Treatment Physical examination Pharmaceutical Relaxation and massage techniques 23
Gender Roles and Gender Identity Gender Role: Gender Identity: Biological Sex and gender identity don’t always match; may cause a person to question their sexuality Transexuals, transgender, transvestites, etc. 24
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