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Chapter Five. 2 3 4 MALE CIRCUMCISION  Sex Hormones  Functions of sex hormones include:  Sex hormones are produced from several endocrine glands:

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Five. 2 3 4 MALE CIRCUMCISION  Sex Hormones  Functions of sex hormones include:  Sex hormones are produced from several endocrine glands:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Five

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4 4 MALE CIRCUMCISION

5  Sex Hormones  Functions of sex hormones include:  Sex hormones are produced from several endocrine glands: Hypothalamus produces hormones that control what the pituitary releases (releasing and inhibiting hormones) Pituitary gland produces LH and FSH Adrenal (cortex) produces androgens Testes produce testosterone Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone 5

6  Determined by the fertilizing sperm at the time of conception  Conception - combining of 23 pairs of chromosomes  Of the 23 pairs, one pair are called sex chromosomes  Eggs carry an X sex chromosome  Sperm can carry either an X or Y sex chromosome  XX provides the blueprint to produce a female; XY provides the blueprint to produce a male (biological sex) 6

7  Physical changes begins around 8-13 with breast development and rapid body growth between 9 and 15.  The 4 Phases of the Menstrual Cycle  Menses Days 1-5  Estrogenic phase Days 6-13  Ovulation phase Day 14  Progestational phase Days

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9  Dysmenorrhea  ICramps, bloating, nausea associated with the menstrual cycle  Premenstrual Tension (PT)  Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)  Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)  Pharmacological treatment  Lifestyle changes to reduce symptoms  Limit salt intake  Exercise  Don’t use alcohol or tobacco  Eat a nutritious diet  Relax 9

10  Begins about 10 or 11 years old  Normally occurs 2 years later than girls  Physical changes  Testicular growth  Penis growth  Pubic hair growth  Voice deepens  Increase in height 10

11  Four phases typically characterize the sexual response cycle: 1. Excitement phase 2. Plateau phase 3. Orgasmic phase Refractory period in males 4. Resolution phase 11

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13  10 – 30 seconds after stimuli = vaginal lubrication  Tenting = body of the uterus begins to ascend  Clitoris enlarges & labia minora swell

14  Continued tenting  Vaginal walls swell  Upper part of vagina expands

15  Contractions in uterus  Strong muscular contractions in vagina

16  If no effective stimuli is present system returns to normal  Uterus lowers  Vagina returns to normal size etc.

17  Vasocongestion causes erection of penis  Skin of scrotum tenses and causes testes to elevate

18  Pre-ejaculatory emission from Cowper’s gland  Prostate gland, glans and testes enlarge

19 Contractions in penis, urethra, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, cause semen to be expelled

20  Vasocongestion ebbs  System returns to normal

21  Women  Menopause = Ovaries gradually cease functioning  Decreasing estrogen levels  Increased risk of disease  Men  Gradual decrease of testosterone  Loss of energy/sex drive/stamina 21

22  Biological conditions affecting women: Vaginitis Vaginismus Endometriosis Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) 50-75% of PID cases are caused by STDs  Biological conditions affecting men: Prostatitis (acute vs. chronic) Testicular cancer Most common in men in their twenties and thirties 22

23  Common sexual dysfunctions  Men – Erectile dysfunction Premature ejaculation Delayed ejaculation  Women – orgasmic dysfunction  Treatment  Physical examination  Pharmaceutical  Relaxation and massage techniques 23

24  Gender Roles and Gender Identity  Gender Role:  Gender Identity:  Biological Sex and gender identity don’t always match; may cause a person to question their sexuality  Transexuals, transgender, transvestites, etc. 24


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