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The Tundra Biome The Tundra Biome.

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Presentation on theme: "The Tundra Biome The Tundra Biome."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Tundra Biome The Tundra Biome

2 Northern Most Land Biome

3 The Tundra Biome- Abiotic
Coldest Biome on Earth Less than ten inches of Rain each Year Soil is permanently frozen- Permafrost Soil is Nutrient- poor Summer Season is under 10 degrees Fahrenheit Winter Season averages –30 degrees Fahrenheit Strong Winds- make temperatures very cold and low diversity of life

4 Cotton Grass Field in Tundra

5 Plant Life Cotton Grass Artic Moss Lichen Artic Willow

6 Plant Adaptations Most of the plants are small, grow close together and close to the ground. This protects them from the cold temperatures and the strong winds

7 Some flowering plants have fuzzy coverings on the stems, leaves and buds to provide protection from the wind. Some have woolly seed covers.

8 Other Plant Adaptations
Others are dark colored so the plants can absorb more solar heat. Only the top layer of soil thaws out so plants have shallow roots. Small leaves help the plants retain moisture. Lichen and some mosses can survive on bare rock

9 Plant Life Cotton Grass Artic Moss Lichen Artic Willow

10 Snowy Owl Animals Caribou Artic Fox Polar Bear Musk Ox

11 Animal Adaptations Long Thick Fur
Migration- Caribou, birds, and others Short Legs- (Many Rodents in the Tundra) Small activity during the winter Camouflage- Artic fox and snowy owl Store up food Large amounts of Fat to stay warm Underground Tunnels- Under Snow to stay warm

12 Coniferous Forest Forests that contain conifer trees. Conifer trees are trees that produce cone shaped seeds and have needle shaped leaves. long cold winters, -40° to 68°, average summer temperature is 50° 12

13 Canada, Alaska, Northern Europe, and Russia

14 Coniferous Forest- Abiotic Factors
Long cold winters, short mild summers. Moderate amount of Rainfall Frozen Soil for several months keeps plants from getting water. Artic Winds create temperatures that stay under 50 degrees for most of the year.

15 Plant life in the Coniferous Forest- Biotic Factors
- “Cone –bearing plants” Plants include- Pines, evergreens, spruce, etc. Adaptations- Cone shape of tree and long thin needles prevent snow accumulation Don’t lose leaves and have to grow new ones (use less energy) Less rainfall than the deciduous forest- long thin needles means less surface area to lose water Thick Bark that conserves water loss.

16 Picture taken by Ms. B Usually only one or two types of conifers, evergreen trees. Pine, Cedar, Red-wood, spruce. 16


18 Animals Black Bears, Wolves, Foxes, Eagles, Bobcats Adaptations: ?

19 Animals Black Bears, Wolves, Foxes, Eagles, Bobcats Adaptations:
Thick fur Hibernation Birds migrate where food is more available and climate is warmer. Store up food during warmer seasons

20 Elk, brown bear, beaver, deer, lynx, wolf, woodpeckers, hawks, shrews
Elk, brown bear, beaver, deer, lynx, wolf, woodpeckers, hawks, shrews 20

21 Amount of Precipitation
Tundra Taiga

22 Yearly Temperatures in Celsius.
Tundra Taiga

23 Succession in Ecosystems

24 I. Succession- a series of changes in a community in which new populations of organisms gradually replace existing ones

25 A. Primary succession- colonization of new sites by communities of organisms – takes place on bare rock

26 Primary succession- New bare rock comes from 2 sources:
1. volcanic lava flow cools and forms rock

27 Primary succession- New bare rock comes from 2 sources:
2. Glaciers retreat and expose rock

28 B. Pioneer organisms- the first organisms to colonize a new site
Ex: lichens are the first to colonize lava rocks

29 Primary Succession- Rock

30 C. Climax community- a stable, mature community that undergoes little or no succession

31 Climax community- Ex: In most of Georgia, the climax community would be a deciduous forest (oak, elm, maple and hickory                                                                                                                                 

32 Primary succession-

33 Secondary succession-
sequence of community changes that takes place when a community is disrupted by natural disaster or human actions – takes place on existing soil

34 Secondary succession-
Ex: A fire levels portions of a forest

35 Secondary succession-
Ex: A farmer plows his field

36 Secondary succession-

37 Secondary succession-

38 Pond Succession

39 Pond Succession

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