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2 accounting system is a uniform set of methods and procedures. system księgowy accounts payable are the accounts in which credit purchases are recorded. rachunki do zapłacenia accounts receivable are the accounts in which credit sales are recorded. należność accounts payable are the recorded amounts of purchases for which acompany has not yet made payment. zobowiązania. accrual is an amount that is added to a quantity of something. przyrost acquisition is the act of one company absorbing another nabycie/przejęcie (innej firmy) add To add numbers is to combine them dodawać. adjusting entry is an amount that is recorded to compensate for an error. korekta adopt To adopt something is to decide to use it. przyjąć 2

3 advance payment is a payment that is given before the product or service is exchanged. zaliczka; przedpłata, zapłata z góry assess to test or evaluate something. oszacować assets something of value that a company owns. aktywa, majątek attest service - a service performed by an accountant in which the accountant offers his or her professional opinion about something. usługa księgowa 3

4 balance sheet a document that shows a companys assets, liabilities, and equity at a certain point in time. bilans, zestawienie bilansowe bill To bill someone is to send him or her a document stating an amount of money that he or she owes. wystawiać komuś rachunek binder a notebook that holds papers with rings or clips. segregator bonus an amount of money paid in addition to regular wages or salaries. premia bookkeeper an accountant who records transactions. księgowy breakeven point - the level at which revenue equals costs. próg rentowności budget analyst an accountant who manages a companys financial plans. analityk budżetowy bulletin board a wall panel that people post messages on. tablica ogłoszeń business budgeting the act of creating a budget for a business. budżetowanie biznesu 4

5 business entity any type of business. podmiot gospodarczy business plan a detailed plan setting out the ojectives of a business, the strategy and tactics planned to achieve them and the expected profits, usually over a period of three to ten years. biznesplan buy out to purchase the business at a time when it is about to go out of business. wykupić 5

6 campaign an organized, planned set of actions. kampania cash a check to exchange a check for money. realizować czek cash flow the process of money moving into and out of a company. przepływ środków pieniężnych charges fees associated with some inappropriate transactions. opłaty (np. karne) checking account a bank account from which payments are made. konto bieżące chief financial officer an executive who is the highest authority over an organizations financial activities. dyrektor finansowy compensate To compensate for something is to make amends for it. wynagradzać,rekompensować convenience the state of being easy, useful, and comfortable. wygoda, udogodnienie copier a machine that produces duplicates of paper documents. kserokopiarka 6

7 corporate tax a fee that a government charges businesses. podatek dochodowy od osób prawnych cost effective - If something is cost effective, it will generate sufficient income in comparison to how much was invested in it. opłacalny costplus method the act of adding a certain percentage to costs when setting sales prices. metoda ustalania cen w stałej relacji do kosztów (koszty plus marża) creditor - someone to whom money is owed. wierzyciel current ratio the result of dividing a companys assets by its liabilities. wskaźnik bieżącej płynności; stosunek bieżących zobowiązań i aktywów 7

8 debt money that has been borrowed, usually from a bank. dług; należność; wierzytelność decline to decrease. spadać, obniżać (się) depreciation the process by which assets lose value over time. amortyzacja depreciation method an accounting technique that records reductions in value. metoda amortyzacji desirable terms Desirable terms loan conditions that are favorable. korzystne warunki direct cost an expense that rises and falls with the volume of production. koszty bezpośrednie direct labor the wages of employees who make a companys products. bezpośrednie koszty robocizny 8

9 direct materials the materials that are used to make products. materiały bezpośrednie divided by means that a number is meant to be broken into equal units of a certain quantity. dzielony przez dividend a portion of profits given to a stockholder based on what percentage of the company he or she owns. dywidenda downpayment - a percentage of an items total value that must be paid at the time of purchase in order to finance the rest of the purchase price. zaliczka, przedpłata drive competitors out of business to draw so many customers away from competitors stores that they dont make enough money to stay in business. pozbyć się konkurencji (np. poprzez odebranie klientów) dumping the act of selling goods below cost. (sprzedaż towarów poniżej kosztów) 9

10 endofperiod procedure a task that must be done at the end of an accounting period before opening books for a new period. procedura na koniec okresu sprawozdawczego employee benefit any form of compensation other than wages and salaries. świadczenie pracownicze evaluate - to test it. ocenić, oszacować excise tax a fee for producing certain nonessential products like tobacco and fuel. podatek akcyzowy expenditure an instance of spending money. wydatek, wydatki, rozchód external financial report a document prepared for and used by people outside of an organization. zewnętrzne sprawozdanie finansowe 10

11 factor anything that influences something else. czynnik file to turn sth in to the agency that requires it. wciągnąć do ewidencji finance to borrow money in order to purchase it. finansować financier someone who lends money. finansista financing activity things that companies do to increase the amount of cash they have (e.g., taking out a loan, selling portions of the company to stockholders). działalność finansowa fiscal year the period used by organizations to prepare annual financial statements. rok podatkowy fixed assets any piece of property that is not easily converted to cash (e.g., a building). środki trwałe fixed cost an expense that stays the same regardless of the volume of production. koszt stały 11

12 fixed expense one that stays the same each month. koszt stały fixed overhead - costs such as rents and insurance premiums that stay the same regardless of the volume of production. stałe koszty ogólne flat tax - a system in which everyone pays the same rate of tax no matter how much they make. podatek liniowy flow of transactions the pattern of buying and selling that a business goes through. przepływ transakcji forgery an illegal copy of something. falsyfikat, podrobiony dokument; fałszerstwo free circulation the act of transferring things broadly and without restraint. swobodny przepływ 12

13 general and administrative costs the amounts paid for basic business operations. koszty ogólnego zarządu generate to create something. wytwarzać gross earnings the total amount of money before deductions that an employee earns. przychód/zarobek brutto gross margin the amount of money left when cost of goods sold is subtracted from sales revenue. marża brutto gross wages the sum of an employees hourly pay for a certain period. zarobek brutto 13

14 hover means to stay near a particular point. wahać się, utrzymywać się (na pewnym poziomie) 14

15 income statement a document that shows how much money an organization gained or lost in a certain period of time. rachunek wyników finansowych; zysków i strat income tax payable the amount of tax that an organization owes a government for a certain year but is not required to pay until the following year. należny podatek dochodowy indirect an expense that stays the same regardless of the volume of production. koszty pośrednie inflow cash coming into a company. wpływy inhouse If something is done inhouse, it is done only by employees of a particular company. wewnątrzzakładowy, wewnętrzny intangible assets anything of value that is not a physical object. aktywa niematerialne 15

16 interest rate a percentage that is added to a loan amount during the loan period stopa procentowa internal financial report a document prepared for and used by members of an organization. wewnętrzny raport finansowy inventory the value of products that a company has bought and intends to sell for profit. zapasy; inwentarz 16

17 lease term the period of time until a lease expires. termin wynajmu lessee a person who leases property. dzierżawca, najemca lessor a person who owns leased property. osoba wynajmująca (komuś), wynajmujący liability any amount of money that a company owes. zobowiązanie finansowe liquidity the degree of ease with which an asset can be converted to cash. płynność środków finansowych litigation support an accounting field in which an accountant assists law professionals. obsługa prawna local knowledge familiarity with a particular region. znajomość warunków lokalnych 17

18 loss zone a state in which a company spends more money than it earns. strefa strat loan period the amount of time in which a debt is expected to be paid. czas spłacania pożyczki 18

19 make a killing to make a huge amount of profit. osiągnąć ogromny zysk margin per unit the revenue left over after variable expenses divided by the number of units produced. marża na sztuce margin ratio margin divided by revenue. stopa marży markup a certain amount of money that companies add to their costs when setting sales prices. narzut multiplied by means that a number is meant to be added to itself a certain number of times. pomnożony przez 19

20 nearterm If something is nearterm, it is taking place over a small period of time. krótkoterminowy net income the amount of money that remains after all expenses have been deducted from sales revenue. dochód netto 20

21 on credit To purchase something on credit is to purchase it with a promise to pay for it later. na kredyt operating cycle the pattern of purchasing materials and using them to earn a profit. cykl operacyjny operating earnings the money left after fixed and variable expenses have been deducted. zysk operacyjny operating margin the amount of money left when general and administrative costs are subtracted from the gross margin. marża operacyjna outflow is cash moving out of a company. rozchody outsource is to hire people from outside a company to do the companys work. podwynająć, zlecić np. innej firmie overdraft a transaction conducted without sufficient funds. debet, przekroczenie stanu konta owners equity the total monetary value of a company. kapitał własny 21

22 P & L A a profit and loss statement. It shows how much money an organization gained or lost in a certain period of time. rachunek zysków i strat partnership an unincorporated business that is owned by a few people. spółka pay for (something) ahead of time to pay for it before receiving it. zapłacić z gory pay off To pay off a loan is to repay the total amount of it plus any interest. spłacić (pożyczkę) payroll a list of employees and their salaries or wages. lista płac payroll master file a file containing all of a companys payroll info główny plik z listą płac pay stub a document that shows an employees pay and taxes for a certain period. odcinek wypłaty plummet to decrease rapidly. gwałtownie spadać 22

23 proceeds are money received from sales. dochód, wpływy profit sharing plan a project in which a company gives a portion of its income to its employees. plan podziału zysków profit zone a state in which a company earns more than it spends. strefa zysku promotion the process of attracting people`s attention to a product for example by advertising. promocja property a fee that local governments charge for owning real estate. podatek od nieruchomości public practice it consists of any field of accounting, such as tax preparation, in which the accountant works with the general public. sektor finansów publicznych. purchase order a document stating items that a company wishes to buy. zamówienie 23

24 raise capital to gather money. gromadzić kapitał receipt something that is received. wpływ, przychód recoup to pay back money that was spent. wyrównywać straty recovery period the length of time during which an asset is depreciated. okres amortyzacji retailer a company that sells products to the public. sprzedawca detaliczny return on equity a comparison of net income to owners equity. stopa zwrotu na kapitale własnym; rentowność kapitału własnego; zysk na kapitale akcyjnym return on sales a comparison of net income to sales revenue. rentowność sprzedaży 24

25 review process a procedure in which documents are inspected for accuracy. sprawdzanie dokładności dokumentów run the numbers to make calculations in order to analyze one or more scenarios. przeprowadzać kalkulacje 25

26 safety reserve an amount that is held in case of unforeseen needs. kwota rezerwowa salary a yearly amount of money paid to an employee. pensja sales price the amount of money that someone requires in exchange for an item. cena sprzedaży sales revenue the amount of money that is received from selling goods or services. przychody ze sprzedaży; wpływy ze sprzedaży sales volume the total number of products sold. wielkość sprzedaży sell below cost to the sell something for less money than it took to purchase, manufacture or produce it. sprzedawać poniżej kosztów selling the act of exchanging goods or services for money. sprzedaż shortterm If something is shortterm, it is taking place over a small period of time. krótkoterminowy 26

27 slump to decrease for a long period. gwałtownie spadać source document one of the various types of records of financial transactions. dokument źródłowy (zapis transakcji) solvency the ability to pay debts. wypłacalność statement of financial condition a balance sheet. bilans finansowy, sprawozdanie finansowe stockholder a person who has purchased a percentage of ownership of a company. akcjonariusz, udziałowiec subtract a number is to remove that quantity from another number. odejmować 27

28 take out To take out a loan is to borrow money. wziąć (pożyczkę) tangible assets any physical object that holds value. aktywa materialne tax money that individuals and businesses are required to pay to a government. podatek tax accountant an accountant who specializes in tax regulations. doradca podatkowy tax avoidance any activity done to avoid paying taxes. unikanie płacenia podatków tax breaks discounts on taxes that are offered to encourage some desired behavior. ulgi podatkowe tax deductible If something is tax deductible, its value can be subtracted from its owners taxable income. podlegający odliczeniu od podatku tax form a document that people and corporations are required to turn in to thegovernments taxation agency. formularz podatkowy 28

29 total margin the revenue left over after variable expenses have been deducted. całkowita marża total wages the sum of an employees hourly pay for a certain period. wynagrodzenie całkowite trademark a legally protected symbol. znak firmowy transfer the act of moving money from one account to another. przelew 29

30 up to date If something is up to date, it means that it includes all available information as of today. aktualny update an improvement for a program. aktualizacja, ulepszenie useful life a products useful life is the period of time in which it can be used. okres użytkowania 30

31 valueadded tax consists of fees that are charged every time materials are transferred from one company to another during the manufacturing process. podatek od wartości dodanej; VAT variable cost an expense that rises and falls with the volume of production. koszty zmienne variable expense one that is likely to change each month. wydatki zmienne venture an investment for the purpose of generating more income. przedsięwzięcie viability the ability to survive and be successful. rentowność, zdolność do utrzymania się na rynku 31

32 wholesaler a company that sells products to retailers. sprzedawca hurtowy withdrawal the act of removing money from an account. wypłata working capital assets minus liabilities. kapitał obrotowy 32

33 yearoveryear growth rate a comparison of one years profits to another years profits. wskaźnik wzrostu liczony rok do roku 33

34 zero cash balance a situation in which there is no cash in an account. zerowe saldo gotówkowe Based on : * Career Paths, Accounting, słownik angielsko-polski, * Macmillan English Dictionary 34


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