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The Scramble for Africa

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Presentation on theme: "The Scramble for Africa"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Scramble for Africa
Ch 11 Section 1

2 Africa before European domination
Africa was divided into hundreds of ethnic and linguistic groups. Europeans had established contact with some African regions south of the Sahara desert as early as 1450, but powerful African armies stopped them taking over. (By 1880, Europe controlled a mere 10% of Africa) Africans controlled their own trade systems. Traditional African beliefs were practiced along with Christianity and Islam.

3 Causes of Imperialism Belief of Europeans in racial superiority (racism) Social Darwinism- the belief that evolution and nature apply to humanity, survival of the fittest applied. Need for raw materials (petroleum, ivory, rubber. Gold and diamonds in southern Africa) New technology (from industrial revolution) Military Strength (i.e. machine gun v spears)

4 Factors allowing Europeans to overcome the main difficulties of “The Dark Continent”
Technology, new weapons, new steam ships, railroads. Europeans developed quinine as a protection against malaria. Europeans played off African rivalries on one another and kept them from becoming unified.


6 The Division of Africa Berlin Conference- in , European nations met to establish rules for the colonization of Africa. They agree any European nation could take parts of Africa after notifying other European nations. (no African consent required) By 1914 Africa was divided up with only Ethiopia and Liberia remaining free. New boundaries did not consider the rights or needs of Africans.

7 Percentage of Africa Controlled by European Countries in 1913

8 The need for raw materials
Africans did buy many of Europe’s goods. The real wealth for the Europeans came from raw mineral resources found in Africa. Belgian Congo- tin and copper South Africa- diamonds and gold Cash crop plantations such as peanuts, palm oil, cocoa and rubber replaced food as a source of agricultural production. Famine and starvation would soon become a problem.

9 The “Need” for Raw Materials From the Belgian Congo, came copper & tin

10 The clashes in S. Africa Zulu fight the British
-Shaka the leader of the Zulu formed a well trained army in an effort to create a bigger state. -The Zulu bravely fought the British using spears and shields but eventually were defeated by the British in July 1879 at the battle of Ulundi. -By 1887, the Zulu had fallen under British domination.

11 The Zulu

12 The Boer Wars

13 The Boer Wars The Boers were Dutch settlers (farmers) who had arrived in Africa in the 1600’s. They built large farms through the 1800’s until the British arrived. In the 1830’s, they moved north to escape British rule in what is called The Great Trek. The Boers then found themselves fighting the Zulu and other tribes whose lands they were taking. The Boers were ultimately successful and created their own lands

14 The Boer Wars When gold and diamonds were discovered in the areas inhabited by the Boers in 1890’s, the British sought to take the land from them. The Boers fought back against the British using guerilla tactics. Britain burned much of the Boer lands in retaliation. The British used concentration camps and over 14,000 Africans were killed. By 1910, the Boers were defeated and the union of South Africa was formed under British rule.

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