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C. Johannesson Concentration Ch. 12- Solutions

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Concentration A measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a certain amount of solvent. Concentrated solution has a large amount of solute. Dilute solution has a small amount of solute Separate from Saturated / unsaturated

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C. Johannesson Concentration The amount of solute in a solution. Describing Concentration – % by mass - medicated creams – % by volume - rubbing alcohol – ppm, ppb - water contaminants – molarity - used by chemists – molality - used by chemists

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Molarity The number of moles of solute in 1 Liter of the solution. M = moles/Liter What is the molarity of a solution with 2.0 moles of NaCl in 4.0 Liters of solution.

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Molarity What is the molarity of a solution with 3.0 moles dissolved in 250 mL of solution.

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Making solutions Pour in a small amount of solvent Then add the solute and dissolve it Then fill to final volume. M x L = moles How many moles of NaCl are needed to make 6.0 L of a 0.75 M NaCl solution?

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Making solutions How many grams of CaCl 2 are needed to make 625 mL of a 2.0 M solution?

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Making solutions 10.3 g of NaCl are dissolved in a small amount of water then diluted to 250 mL. What is the concentration?

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Making solutions How many grams of sugar are needed to make 125 mL of a 0.50 M C 6 H 12 O 6 solution?

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C. Johannesson Dilution Preparation of a desired solution by adding water to a concentrate. Moles of solute remain the same.

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C. Johannesson Dilution What volume of 15.8M HNO 3 is required to make 250 mL of a 6.0M solution? GIVEN: M 1 = 15.8M V 1 = ? M 2 = 6.0M V 2 = 250 mL WORK: M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 (15.8M) V 1 = (6.0M)(250mL) V 1 = 95 mL of 15.8M HNO 3

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Practice 2.0 L of a 0.88 M solution are diluted to 3.8 L. What is the new molarity?

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Practice You have 150 mL of 6.0 M HCl. What volume of 1.3 M HCl can you make?

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Practice You need 450 mL of 0.15 M NaOH. All you have available is a 2.0 M stock solution of NaOH. How do you make the required solution?

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Percent solutions Percent means per 100 so Percent by volume = Volume of solute x 100% Volume of solution indicated %(v/v) What is the percent solution if 25 mL of CH 3 OH is diluted to 150 mL with water?

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Percent solutions Percent by mass = mass of solute(g) x 100% mass of solution(g) Indicated %(m/m) More common

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Percent solutions 4.8 g of NaCl are dissolved in 82 g of solvent. What is the percent of the solution?

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Percent solutions How many grams of salt are there in 52 g of a 6.3 % solution?

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C. Johannesson Preparing Solutions 500 mL of 1.54M NaCl mass 45.0 g of NaCl add water until total volume is 500 mL 500 mL mark 500 mL volumetric flask

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C. Johannesson Preparing Solutions 250 mL of 6.0M HNO 3 by dilution – measure 95 mL of 15.8M HNO 3 95 mL of 15.8M HNO 3 water for safety 250 mL mark combine with water until total volume is 250 mL Safety: “Do as you oughtta, add the acid to the watta!”

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