2 SS7H1 The student will analyze continuity and changes in Africa leading to the 21st century A. Explain how the European partitioning across Africa contributed to conflict, civil war, and artificial political boundaries.B. Explain how nationalism led to independence in South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria.C. Explain the creation and end of apartheid in South Africa and roles of Nelson Mandela and F. W. de Klerk.D. Explain the impact of the Pan-African movement.
3 Colonization of Africa Colonization is the forced control of one nation by another nation.Africa is a continent of vast wealth. It has many raw materials such as cotton, rubber, ivory, gold, diamonds, and minerals not found in Europe.Europeans also used Africa as a source of cheap labor.African countries were new markets for European goods.Colonizing Africa made it possible to create secure trade routes for European countries traveling through the Suez Canal and around the entire continent.
5 The Berlin ConferenceThe Berlin Conference was a series of meetings held in Berlin, Germany by European nations fromAfrica’s rulers did not attend.The European nations discussed Africa’s land and how they wanted it to be divided.Only 10% of Africa was in European hands prior to the meeting. However, Europeans owned most of Africa by the end of the Berlin Conference.The African tribes had no control over their own countries. Land and resources were taken. Wars, riots, and protests were common. Starvation and disease also occurred. Africans often were forced into labor.New borders were drawn separating families and tribes. Wars started between tribes that used to be friendly
7 ImperialismImperialism: The belief that a strong country was supposed to have colonies to provide raw materials to increase its wealth and importance in the world.Europe first became interested in Africa while they were participating in the trans-Atlantic slave trade.Even after slave trade ended, interest in the wealth of the African continent did not end.Africa is rich in natural resources that the Europeans wanted and needed (gold, platinum, diamonds, iron ore, coal, uranium, and rubber)Christian missionaries also wanted to bring Christianity to the heathen land.
8 Indirect Rule and Assimilation The British used indirect rule where they appointed local chiefs to be their enforcers, to collect taxes, run the businesses and put down any trouble.Assimilation was used by the French. This encouraged Africans to become French citizens, to give up their customs and adopt French ways. Many French colonies began to speak French and were granted citizenship.
9 After WWIIBefore WWII European powers did not try to improve the lives of the African people, unless doing so would increase their profits.By the end of the war, Africans were openly opposed to European control of their countries.Africans realized that Europeans were taking advantage of their land and labor.Slowly European countries began to liberate their African colonies. By 1960, 27 were independent. By 1975, over 47 were independent.Independence came at a high cost. Boundaries set by European countries paid little attention to traditional loyalties and kinship groups of the people they were ruling, with little concern for the ethnic and religious groups that lived there.Tribal leaders were often not prepared for leadership roles.
10 Independence in KenyaMany Kenyans thought the British had taken their land unfairly. A group of Kenyans started the Mau Mau, which operated fromThe Mau Mau, a secret society, used force to rebel against British rule. The British mostly defeated the Mau Mau, but violence continued until 1960.This movement by the Mau Mau convinced the British that they would have to grant independence to Kenya.Kenya became independent of British rule in 1964, under the leadership of Joseph Kenyatta.Joseph Kenyatta was the leader of the Kenyan African National Union (KNAU).Although Kenya was glad to be free of British rule, the government of Kenyatta was not open or free. Under Kenyatta and his successor, Daniel Moi, the KNAU ran unopposed in every national election until the 1990’s.At that time, the international community told Moi that unless Kenya improved their civil rights record, economic help would stop.Some improvements have occurred, however, the KNAU still controls much of the government of Kenya.
11 Joseph Kenyatta and Mwai Kibaki Current President
12 Independence in Nigeria Britain was given control of the region now called Nigeria at the Berlin Conference inMany ethnic groups in this region did not want to be part of the same country. The British also treated these groups differently. The British spent more money building roads and schools in the south than in the north.By the 1940’s, Nigerians had started many groups to fight against British rule. These groups became political parties that worked for Nigerian independence.Although the African’s in Nigeria admired European culture, they believed the only way for Nigerians to have their rights was to be free of European rule.In the late 1940’s and 1950’s, the British let Nigerians elect their own people into government.Great Britain gave Nigeria independence on October 1, 1960.Nigeria did not have to fight for its independence from Great Britain.However, within a few months after independence, war broke out between the Christian south and the Muslim north. The religious war left thousands dead or injured.The country tried to reorganize, but military coups and outbreaks of violence marked the years that followed.Elections were held in 1999 that seemed more free and open, but the government still remains unstable.Nigeria has the potential to have great wealth from oil, but because of corruption in the government this resource has not been developed
14 Independence in South Africa The colony of South Africa was founded in the mid-1600’s by the Dutch and later taken over by the British in the 1800’s When the British took over, the Dutch moved north into land occupied by the Zulus. This led to warfare with the Dutch and later with the British.Vast deposits of gold and diamonds were discovered in South Africa.Because native South Africans were considered second-class citizens in the Union of South Africa, they formed the African National Congress (ANC) to work for equal treatment of the nonwhite population.
15 ApartheidSouth Africa set up a strict system of separation of the races, the apartheid system.Apartheid means the legal separation of the races. This was the law in the Union of South Africa from its creation in 1948 until it was repealed in 1994.Under Apartheid, racial identification was used classifying citizens as either black, colored, Asian, or white. Blacks had few rights, and most public facilities were segregated (schools, libraries, movie theaters, restaurants, and even beaches.)The African National Congress led by Nelson Mandela, along with the Pan African Congress worked to stop these laws. Mandela spent 27 years in prison for his fight against this regime.Many countries around the world were critical of South Africa for its discriminatory government. Some refused to do business with South Africa.Finally, in 1994, with the help of South African president F.W. de Klerk, the apartheid laws were repealed and Nelson Mandela was released from prison.In the first free election open to all races, the African National Congress won the most delegates and Nelson Mandela was chosen as South Africa’s first black president.
17 The Pan-African Movement This movement began as a reaction to the terrible experiences of colonial rule and the desire for people of African descent, no matter where they lived in the world, to think of Africa as a homeland.The Pan-African Movement wanted all Africans to think of themselves as one people and to work together for the betterment of all.They wanted to end European control in Africa and improve Africa’s economies and living conditions.Even though peaceful unification of Africa has never taken place, the Pan-African movement can take credit for sparking independence movements that left nearly all African nations free of colonial rule by the 1980’s.
19 Pros and Cons of Colonization PositiveSchools builtHospitals builtRoadsRailroadsEconomy improvedNegativeSlaveryLand and resources takenWars/riotsFamilies and tribes separatedNo control of own country
20 Test YourselfWhich European country colonized Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa?A. FranceB. GermanyC. SpainD. Great Britain
21 Test YourselfWhich of these statements BEST describes the reason for European colonization of Africa?A. Europeans wanted to African wildlifeB. European cities were overcrowdedC. Europeans wanted raw materials not available in EuropeD. Europeans were tired of wars.
22 Test YourselfThe Conference to determine the division of Africa between European countries was held inA. Cairo, EgyptB. Paris, FranceC. Bangkok, ThailandD. Berlin, Germany