Presentation on theme: "Ratifying the Constitution and the Bill of Rights"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ratifying the Constitution and the Bill of Rights Chapter 5 Section 3&4
2 The New Quarters – It Makes Cents… First State QuarterLast State QuarterWhat are these items on each coin and why were they picked?And finally (and most important for this part of the lesson) why are they minted in a specific order?
3 The Constitutional Convention created a new government The Constitutional Convention created a new government. But the new government could not become a reality until the nation’s voters approved it.
4 The delegates to the Constitutional Convention decided on a plan for ratification, or official approval. Each state would hold a special convention.
5 Voters in the state would elect delegates to the convention Voters in the state would elect delegates to the convention. The delegates would then vote to accept or reject the Constitution.
6 If at least nine states approved the Constitution, it would become the law of the land.
7 Supporters of the Constitution were known as Federalists, because they favored the new Constitution’s balance of power between the states and the national government. The leading Virginia proponents of ratification were George Washington and James Madison.
8 Federalists wanted the Constitution to be approved Federalists wanted the Constitution to be approved. They argued that without a strong central government we would all return to anarchy or at least more intense arguing between the states thanks to the Articles
9 Opponents of the Constitution were known as Anti-federalists Opponents of the Constitution were known as Anti-federalists. Because they opposed having such a strong central government and thus were against the Constitution. Anti-Federalists consisted of farmers, laborers, and some business leaders for example: John Hancock and Samuel Adams, as well as Patrick Henry and George Mason from Virginia.
10 Federalists argued that the division of powers and the system of checks and balances would protect Americans from the abuses of a strong central government.
11 Antifederalists disagreed Antifederalists disagreed. They offered a long list of abuses of power by a strong central government. These included a fear that the government would serve the interests of the privileged minority and ignore the rights of the majority.
12 Antifederalists also raised doubts that a single government could manage the affairs of a large country. Their leading argument, however, centered on the Constitution’s lack of protection for individual rights.
13 Both sides waged a war of words in the public debate over ratification Both sides waged a war of words in the public debate over ratification. The Federalist, a series of 85 essays defending the Constitution, appeared in New York newspapers between 1787 and They were published under the pseudonym Publius, but were written by Federalist leaders Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. The Federalist provided an analysis and an explanation of Constitutional provisions, such as the separation of powers and the limits on the power of majorities, that remain important today.
14 Letters from the Federal Farmer, most likely written by Richard Henry Lee, was the most widely read Antifederalist publication. Lee listed the rights the Antifederalists believed should be protected.
15 They included freedom of the press and religion, guarantees against unreasonable searches of people and their homes, and the right to a trial by jury.
16 Two sides argued over the Constitution’s passage.
17 Antifederalists argued that since the Constitution weakened the states, the people needed a national bill of rights. They wanted written guarantees that the people would have freedom of speech, of the press, and of religion. They demanded assurance of the right to trial by jury and the right to bear arms.
18 To get the constitution passed, Federalists promised to add a Bill of Rights in the states ratified the Constitution.
20 Delaware was the first state to ratify the Constitution, in December 1787.The following June, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify it.
21 The Constitution officially had been approved The Constitution officially had been approved. However, New York and Virginia had not voted yet. The government needed the support of these large and influential states in order for the Constitution to work.
22 By July 1788, both states ratified the Constitution By July 1788, both states ratified the Constitution. The Constitution became the basis for the new government in 1789.
23 In several states, ratification had hinged on the Federalists’ pledge to add a bill of rights. In September 1789, Congress approved 12 ammendments.
24 James Madison drafted the amendments (which became the United States Bill of Rights). Madison had consulted the Virginia Declaration of Rights (George Mason) and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (Thomas Jefferson) when working on the amendments.
25 The government then sent them to the state legislatures for approval The government then sent them to the state legislatures for approval. By December 1791, the states ratified ten of the amendments. As a result, the Bill of Rights became part of the Constitution.
26 The Bill of Rights guaranteed Americans such rights as freedom of religion, speech, and the press. They protected citizens against having their homes searched and property seized without a proper reason.
27 They also protected the rights of people accused of crimes. Finally, the Bill of Rights gave all powers not granted to the federal government to people and the states.